Rolling stock/Characteristics of the infrastructure/Infrastructure
- 1 Charactheristics of the track
- 1.1 Minimum infrastructure gauge
- 1.2 Gauge of rolling stock
- 1.3 Track geometry
- 1.3.1 Horizontal curve radius
- 1.3.2 Nominal track gauge
- 1.3.3 Minimum length of straight line between reverse curves
- 1.3.4 Nominal track geometry parameters
- 1.3.5 Minimum vertical curve radius
- 1.3.6 Nominal rail inclination
- 1.3.7 Maximum track gradient
- 1.3.8 Speed regimes
- 1.3.9 Limits of discrete geometrical track defects
- 1.3.10 Quality number of track geometry
- 1.4 Rails
- 1.5 Switches and crossings
- 1.6 Mechanical characteristics of the track
- 1.6.1 Permitted train weight per meter for bridges
- 1.6.2 Maximum acceptable axle load at signed speed and lower speed for freight trains
- 1.6.3 Maximum acceptable dynamic wheel load
- 1.6.4 Maximum acceptable quasistatic forces between wheel an rail in curves
- 1.6.5 Longitudinal creep resistance of the track
- 1.6.6 Lateral resistance of the track - loaded track
- 1.7 Interface wheel - rail
- 1.8 Platforms
1 Charactheristics of the track
1.1 Minimum infrastructure gauge
NNRA railway tracks are based on the following standard infrastructure gauges: • UIC GC • A-85 • A-96 • A-96T • A-C
Drawings with dimensions of the infrastructure gauges are shown in JD 520, Chap. 5, paragraph 2.1 and 2.2.
1.1.1 Curve overthrows
All horizontal dimensions are increased in circular curves, transition curves and on straight line in the vicinity of curves. The size of curve overthrows are based on a theoretical wagon of length 24 m and bogie pivot pitch distance 18 m.
Some locations have reduced space for curve overthrows based on the following theoretical wagons:
1) Axle distance = 13,5 m and overhang = 2,0 m 2) Axle distance = 10,0 m and overhang = 3,0 m
1.1.2 Lower limit of infrastructure gauge
The lower limit of infrastructure gauge is described in JD 520, Chap.5, paragraph 2.5. Confer 2.8.2 as well.
1.2 Gauge of rolling stock
1.2.1 Permitted infrastructure gauges for rolling stock
Permitted gauges for rolling stock on each railway line is given in Network Statement, annex 188.8.131.52.
NNRA may on request permit use of rolling stock with larger gauge on some railway lines. Address for request: See chapter 1, paragraph 1.4
1.2.2 Minimum acceptable clearance above railhead for rolling stock
In deciding minimum clearance above rail head for rolling stock the following must be considered: • Minimum vertical curve radius in accordance with paragraph 1.3.5. In main track check rails are only located (in accordance with rules for construction) where vertical curve radius is min. 1500 m. • Maximum height of check rail above rail head according to paragraph 1.5.3. • Limiting values of discrete geometrical track defects in accordance with paragraph 1.3.89. • The maximum speed of the rolling stock at each location.
1.3 Track geometry
1.3.1 Horizontal curve radius
Minimum horizontal curve radius on the main track , excluding the Flåm Line, is 160 m. Minimum horizontal curve radius on the Flåm Line is 130 m. A diagram showing percentage of track versus curve radius is given in Figure 3.1. Radius in deviations in switches, se paragraph 1.5.1
Figure 3.1 Track percentage versus curve radius
1.3.2 Nominal track gauge
Nominal track gauge is 1435 mm.
1.3.3 Minimum length of straight line between reverse curves
Buffer locking in subsequent reverse curves with small radius, is prevented with the specifications in JD 530, Chap. 5, paragraph 3.2.6.
1.3.4 Nominal track geometry parameters
JD 530, Chap.5, table 5.2 show nominal values of the following basic parameters: • Maximum cant (superelevation) • Maximum cant excess • Maximum cant deficiency • Maximum rate of change of cant
1.3.5 Minimum vertical curve radius
Minimum vertical curve radius is 1000 m.
1.3.6 Nominal rail inclination
Nominal rail inclination is 1:20.
1.3.7 Maximum track gradient
Maximum gradient of tracks excluding the Flåm Line is 2,7%. On the Flåm Line the maximum gradient is 5,5%.
1.3.8 Speed regimes
The following speed regimes are used:
Normal speed Signed speed result in the following nominal quasi static centrifugal acceleration:
Super¬structure class Radius of curves [m] aq [m/s2] b 0,65 c and d R < 290 0,65 290 R 600 0,85 R > 600 0,98
Confer JD530, Chap. 5, paragraph 4, on further details. Plus speed Signed speed result in the following nominal quasi static centrifugal acceleration: Superstructure class aq [m/s2] b 0,85 c and d 1,05
Tilting trains - speed Signed speed based on a maximum quasi static centrifugal acceleration of 1,6 m/s2.
1.3.9 Limits of discrete geometrical track defects
The limits of the following discrete track errors are shown in JD 532, Chap. 13. • Track gauge (paragraph 3.1.2) • Horisontal track alignment (paragraph 3.3.2) • Vertical track alignment (paragraph 3.2.2) • Twist (paragraph 3.2.2)
1.3.10 Quality number of track geometry
The track geometry is periodically monitored using a Track Recording Vehicle. The test frequency is dependent on the quality class of the track and is given in JD 532, Appendix 4b. Based on these recordings the standard deviation and quality number of the track is calculated. JD 532, Chap. 13, paragraph 5.2 define the limits of standard deviation and the quality number.
The standard deviation is as a rule calculated on the bases of 200 m or 1000 m length of line. Standard deviation is calculated for these lengths and with accuracy as shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Calculation of standard deviation
Målenøyaktighet/ Measuring accuracy Beregningsbasis/ Basis of calculation 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.5 mm 200 m 1000 m 1500 m 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1.5 mm 200 m 1000 m 1500 m 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 200 m 1000 m
The quality number (K-number) indicates for which portion of a line all -values are within the limits. It is used to monitor track quality on longer sections of line. The K-number is calculated using the following formula:
l = the sum of all track lengths where standard deviation is within the quality limits. L = the monitored track length.
1.4.1 Rail profile
The following rail profiles exist: • 60E1 (UIC60) • 54E3 (S54) • 54E2 (UIC54E) • 54E1 (UIC54 • 49E1 (S49) • S64 • S41 • NSB40 • 35,7 kg
JD 530, Appendix 6.b. shows drawings of the rail profiles with dimensions.
Figure 3.2 Distribution of rail profiles – the complete network
1.4.2 Limits of rail head wear
Limits of rail head wear is specified in JD 532, Chap. 7, paragraph 2.
1.4.3 Rail grades
• Standard rail grade is R260Mn (EN 13674-1)
In addition the following rail qualities exist (EN 13674-1): • R200 • R320Cr • R350HT
1.5 Switches and crossings
1.5.1 Minimum curve radius at switches
Minimum curve radius in deviation in switches is 135 m.
1.5.2 Minimum flangeway width
Minimum nominal flangeway width in crossings and between check rail/rail is 38 mm.
1.5.3 Maximum height of check rail above rail head
• Normal nominal height of check rail above rail head is 20 mm. • Maximum nominal height of check rail above rail head is 60 mm. • Considering maximum rail wear, the height of check rail above rail head can be up to maximum 70 mm.
1.5.4 Fixed nose protection
Nominal distance between the guiding edges of the check rail and the running edge of the nose is 1396 mm. Minimum in service distance between the guiding edges of the check rail and the running edge of the nose is 1392 mm.
1.5.5 Minimum permitted distance stock rail – remote laid switch blade
Minimum permitted distance between stock rail and remote laid switch blade is 58 mm.
1.6 Mechanical characteristics of the track
1.6.1 Permitted train weight per meter for bridges
Appendix 3.d specifies the maximum train weight per meter for each railway line.
1.6.2 Maximum acceptable axle load at signed speed and lower speed for freight trains
Maximum acceptable axle load is dependent on speed and class of superstructure. NNRA use the following classes of superstructure: Table 3.2 Permitted speed and axle load versus classes of superstructure Vogner i persontog Passenger carriages Motorvognsett Multiple units Godstog/arbeidsmaskiner Freight trains / track maintenance machines Over-bygnings-klasse / class of super-structure Nominell aksellast (tonn) / max nom. axle load (ton) Maks hastighet (km/h) / max speed (km/h) Nominell aksellast (tonn) / max nom. axle load (ton) Maks hastighet (km/h) max speed (km/h) Maks. aksellast (tonn) / max axle load (ton) Maks hastighet (km/h) max speed (km/h) a 16 90 16 90 22,5 16,5 30 70
b 18 100 18 100 22,5 20,5 18 30 70 80
c 18 160 20,5 18 130 160 22,5 20,5 18 80 90 100
c+ 18 160 20,5 160 24 22,5 18 50 90 110
d 18 230 20,5 20 18 160 200 250 25 22,5 18 70 100 110 Ofot-banen 18 130 20,5 130 30 22,5 50 70
Table 3.2 is based on the following conditions:
• max axle load for locomotives in passenger trains is 22,5 tonn • max dynamic wheel loads are given in section 1.6.3 • max axle load for single axles shall not exceed nominal axle load x 1,04 • for commuter trains single axle loads can be exceeded by 4 – 10% for up to 2% of the traffic • max acceptable total train mass is nominal axle load x number of axles x 1,02 (locomotives in passenger trains are not included in this calculation) In mixed freight trains and express container trains, a combination of 22,5 tonnes axle load and speed of 90 km/h is allowed on superstructure class c if maximum 25 % of the axles have 22,5 tons axle load. Lines of superstructure class b, with low traffic load, are under some circumstances permitted an axle load of 22,5 tons for freight trains with maximum speed of 60 km/h. The total traffic load is not to exceed 2 million gross tons (MGT). Out of this total, the maximum traffic load for freight train axle loads larger than 20,5 tons is 1 MGT. Allowed discontinuities in the rail heads due to fish plated joints, insulated joints, rail welds and at crossing noses are given in JD 532, Chap. 9, Table 9.1 JD 530, Chap. 4 specifies rail profiles which are allowed for different classes of superstructure and associated maximum allowed distance between sleepers.
1.6.3 Maximum acceptable dynamic wheel load
The maximum vertical dynamic wheel load shall not exceed the lowest of the following values:
1) Qlim= 90+Q0 [kN] 2) Qlim= 200 [kN] where
Qlim = maximum allowed dynamic vertical wheel load. Q0 = Static vertical wheel load.
Definitions and test conditions are given in UIC 518
1.6.4 Maximum acceptable quasistatic forces between wheel an rail in curves
The maximum quasistatic wheel forces in curves shall not exceed the following values:
1) (Yqst)lim = 60 kN 2) (Qqst)lim = 145 kN
Yqst = quasi-static lateral force Qqst = quasi-static vertical force
Definitions and test conditions are given in UIC 518
1.6.5 Longitudinal creep resistance of the track
The longitudinal creep resistance of the track is dependent on the track construction and the ballast consolidation. The following general values may be specified for a non-loaded track. Table 3.3 General values of creep resistance
8 – 12 kN/m skinne/rail 6 – 10 kN/m skinne/rail 3 – 7 kN/m skinne/rail
Generally, the track has sufficient resistance against braking- and acceleration forces if the acceleration/retardation does not exceed 2,5 m/s2. At very high axle loads (>25t) and train weights, analysis must be carried out proving that braking- and acceleration forces do not result in rail movements which reduce the safety against lateral movements of the track.
The track’s ability to resist braking forces is based on traditional braking of wheels. Magnetic rail brake shall only be used as an emergency brake.
1.6.6 Lateral resistance of the track - loaded track
Lateral resistance of loaded track satisfy generally the following values: Locomotives, train sets and passenger wagons: 1,0x(10 + P/3) [kN] Freight wagons: 0,85x(10 + P/3) [kN]
On some sections of line where the track lacks lateral resistance due to missing ballast shoulder. The following applies:
For locomotives and wagons: 0,85x(10 + P/3) [kN]
P= Vertical static axle load
1.7 Interface wheel - rail
1.7.1 Lubrication of rails by rolling stock
NNRA does not have lubrication equipment mounted on the track (there are some exceptions). It is assumed that the rolling stock lubricates the points of contact between the rail edge and the wheel flange in curves. The equipment shall produce a controlled and smooth lubrication film. Recommended guidelines for the lubrication equipment of rolling stock are given in appendix 3c. Unless otherwise agreed with NNRA, each train shall lubricate sufficiently to compensate for its own wear of the lubrication film. Necessary amount of lubrication as specified in the table 3.3 shall be applied as indicated in figure 3.3.
Table 3.3 Necessary amount of lubrication
Axles total in train / lubri¬cated axles Type of train cm3 per km 12/1 Multiple units –suburban traffic 0,150 16/1 Multiple units - long distance traffic 0,300 31/1 Passenger trains with locomotive 0,400 70/1 Freight trains with locomotive. 0,600
Figure 3.3 Illustration of where lubrication of flange shall be applied.
Table 3.3 and figure 3.3 are extracts from the report ”Skinnesmøring og flenssmøring på det statlige jernbanenett” (Lubrication of rail and wheel flange). The report was prepared in cooperation with the Norwegian railway undertakings in 2004. Specified amount of lubrication is derived from previous experience, but with correction in order to assure that every train lubricates sufficiently to compensate for iits own wear of the film of lubrication on the rail.
1.7.2 Wheels tread – specification and tolerances.
Rolling stock used in Norway shall use either wheel tread profile P8 (which is supposed to reduce wheel flange wear) or profile according to UIC 510-2. NNRA distributes drawings and table of coordinates for the wheel profiles upon request. For use of any other wheel thread profile approval from NNRA in advance is necessary. The wheel profiles must results in stable running of the rolling stock. In case of uncertain conclusion, measurements and processing of the result according to the specification in UIC 518 shall be done in order to document appropriate running of the rolling stock. For both wheel profiles the tolerances and specifications presented below apply. The figures of appendix 3b illustrate the parameters specified in table 3.4
Table 3.4 Løpesirkel-diameter / Wheel diameter (mm) Minimum / Minimum (mm) Maksimum / Maximum (mm) Spormål (SR) SR = AR+Sd(venstre hjul)+Sd(høyre hjul) / Distance between flange contact faces (SR) SR = AR+Sd(left wheel)+Sd(right wheel) ≥ 840 1410 1426 < 840 and ≥ 330 1415 1426 Flensryggavstand (Innvendig avstand hjul¬skiver) (AR) / Back to back distance (AR) ≥ 840 1357 1363 < 840 and ≥ 330 1359 1363 Hjulkrans-/hjulringbredde (BR) / Width of the rim (BR) ≥ 330 133 140 1) Flenstykkelse (Sd) / Thickness of the flange (Sd) ≥ 840 22 33 < 840 and ≥ 330 27,5 33 Flenshøyde (Sh) / Height of the flange (Sh) ≥ 760 28 36 < 760 and ≥ 630 30 36 < 630 and ≥ 330 32 36 Flenstverrmål (flenssteilhet) (qR) / Face of flange (qR) ≥ 330 6.5 1) Inkludert evt. utvalset materiale på hjulbanens ytre kant. / Burr value included.
The dimensions SR and AR in table 3.4 are measured at the top surface of the rail, and shall be complied with for freight wagons in laden and tare conditions and for loose wheelsets. For specific vehicles smaller tolerances within the above limits may be specified by the vehicle supplier.
Maximum cavity of wheel tread. Double flange (“falsk flens” in figure 3.4) resulting from wheel tread cavity (“hulløp”) may cause: • excessive stress on a reduced contact surface between wheel and rail at the inner edge of the rail head • the switches to absorb forces from the wheels where they are not supposed to do so and thus create risk of cracks or other kind of damage to the rails or switches. Because of this the size of wheel cavity must be limited to maximum 2 mm. (Confer figure 3.4).
Figure 3.4 Maximum permitted value of wheel thread cavity
Maximum permitted size of wheel flats. • Maximum permitted size of wheel flats is 60 mm for wheels with diameter ≥ 900 mm and 40 mm for wheels with diameter < 900 mm. • The maximum permitted length of material outbreak from the thread is 40 mm. • Max height of material aggregation on the wheel thread is 1 mm
Template for wheel flat measurements shall be present in all trains. Measurements are to be carried out for both wheels on the axle
1.7.3 Maximum axle load dependent of wheel size.
In order to reduce damages by rolling contact fatigue on the rails, the wheels shall have a minimum diameter in accordance with Appendix 3.e
1.8.1 Length of platforms
The normal length of platforms is specified in JD 530, Chap. 14, Table 14.4.
1.8.2 Height of platforms
• Normal platform height is 550 mm or 760 mm. (measured perpendicularly on the track plane) • Some platforms are built at a height of 350 mm. • Some platforms are built at a height of 700mm.
1.8.3 Distance platform edge – centre of track
For platforms on a straight line, the distance between the platform edge and track centre is 1680 mm. For platforms in curves, the distance is calculated in accordance with rules specified in JD530, Appendix 14.a
1.8.4 Width of platform
JD 530, Chap.14, paragraph 2.5 specifies the requirements of platform width.
1.8.5 The gradient of the track along the platform
New tracks along platforms are normally not constructed with greater gradients than 0.5%. However, there are exceptions on existing tracks.
1.8.6 Minimum distance platform edge – continues obstruction on the platform
Continuous obstructions on platforms are generally not located closer than 2 m from the platform edge.