# 1 General documentation

Object

The object of 590 ”Supplementary information and regulations” is to give a description of the infrastructure that the Norwegian State Railway Network consists of. The primary users of the a the document are those who specify, design, construct, operate and maintain rolling stock to be operated on this Norwegian Railway Network.

590 is primarily a descriptive document. This means that it primarily provides essential information of the infrastructure in order to consider this during design and construction of rolling stock. However, the railway system is a combination of infrastructure, rolling stock and traffic control. The solutions and standards that are chosen, specify certain preconditions for the individual subsystem. In certain areas, it is necessary to specify requirements for rolling stock and documentation, in order that the Norwegian National Rail Administration as Infrastructure Manager may insure interoperability with respect to infrastructure, traffic control and other systems which are used on the railway network.

Scope

What 590 “Supplementary information and regulations” contains

This document is a supplement to the Kjøretøysforskrift. It has the same chapters as the cross acceptance document and the appendix of the Kjøretøysforskrift.

The Norwegian National Rail Administration has internal regulations for design, construction and maintenance of the railway network (500-series). 590 is mainly based on the other parts of the 500-series. However, it considers also the actual characteristics of the infrastructure, which is not in all cases complies with current regulations. The reason is that the infrastructure is developed over a long period of time and according to previous standards.

590 gives some references to the other 500-series, which is a comprehensive regulation. It is not expected that the users must have knowledge of all this. It is sufficient to refer to this document and the relevant references that are given here.

What this document does not contain

This document does not give a complete description of the requirements that apply to rolling stock that may be operated on the State Railways. In this connection reference is made to the “Kjøretøyforskriften.

The document does not give a description of possible requirement for rolling stock related to the Traffic Regulations of the State Railways. In this respect reference is made to the “Regulation 29 Feb 2008 no. 240 on requirements traffic operation on the State Railways and connected private tracks” (Togframføringsforskriften). Those areas related to the traffic control system which is part of infrastructure and have to be technically compatible with rolling stock is described in this document (i.e. train radio, ATC and track circuits).

The Norwegian Railway Inspectorate is responsible for approving rolling stock and this document does not describe what is required to apply for approval of rolling stock including requirements, documentation and the process. With reference to regulations issued by the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate, the applicant for approval of rolling stock must document that characteristics and limitations of the infrastructure are considered.

The Norwegian Railway Inspectorate assumes that there is an exchange of information between the applicant and the Infrastructure Manager to take care of this. Reference is made to guidelines issued by the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate.

The document does not describe in detail how communication and information exchange must be performed between the applicant and the Norwegian National Rail Administration, but how and when to establish contact is described in the text below.

Network Statement

In some areas, reference is made to “Network Statement”. It is a document issued by the Norwegian National Rail Administration. With reference to EU-Directive 2001/14 on “Allocation of Railway Infrastructure Capacity…”, paragraph 3, Infrastructure Manager shall issue a Statement of the capacity offered. The users of Network Statement are primarily Railway Undertakings (RU) who operate or plan to operate on the State Railway Network. In “Network Statement” chapter 3, there is a description of the infrastructure related to what is essential for planning and traffic operations. In areas where 590 “Supplementary information and regulations” and “Network Statement” have the same information, it is in this document referred to “Network Statement”. In particular, “Network Statement” contains more detailed information on characteristics of railway lines. “Network Statement” is issued each year in December and relates to the year after the first following. (NS 2010 was issued Dec 2008).

Acts and Regulations

Safety Regulation (sikkerhetsforskriften)

With respect to the “Sikkerhetsforskriften” (confer § 10-1. General requirements for infrastructure manager) the infrastructure manager shall ensure that the infrastructure at any time is designed and maintained in such a way that railway operations can be executed safely. Access to the infrastructure shall only be given to rolling stock compatible with the infrastructure.

Similarly § 13-2. Compatibility with infrastrucutre given requirements for rolling stock: Rolling stock shall be compatible with the infrastructure on which it is to be used, including profiles, superstructures, substructures, overhead wires, and signalling and telecommunications equipment.

This document is intended to cover the desired information which the above requirements generates with respect to the physical and technical limits which apply to the State Railway Network and the individual lines.

Enquiries to the Norwegian National Rail Administration

General enquiries

Even though the document is supposed to give exhaustive information, there may be a need for further information and clarifications. Enquiries may be directed in writing to:

Jernbaneverket Bane

Teknikk - Kjöretöyteknologi (ETR)

Postboks 4350

N – 2308 Hamar

Norway

or by use of email to:

tekniskregelverk@jbv.no

Required enquiries to the Norwegian National Rail Administration

The Norwegian National Rail Administration carry out compatibility assessments of rolling stock to ensure that :

a) infrastructure and traffic control for all permitted uses of the rolling stock:

• function satisfactory (according to specification in NS/590)
• are not subjected to larger loads than specified as allowable (590)
• have the prerequisite safety level. The rolling stock’s condition and characteristics during normal usage are used as the basis for this, not exceptional situations.
• maintain acceptable business economy and traffic capacity etc.

b) conditions relating to state of readiness / handling of deviations connected to the rolling stock are sufficiently taken care of.

To be able to carry out and update compatibility assessments the Norwegian National Rail Administration must be informed when a traffic operator are going to:

• First time use of rolling stock or reintroduction of rolling stock that have been considered out of use permanently.
• Rolling stock is going to be introduced on sections of track not included in current acceptance.
• Changes in rolling stock usage not in compliance with current compatibility statement or changes that may affect the ability to take care of the conditions listed as a) to b) above.
• Modify the rolling stock in a way that may affect the ability to take care of the conditions listed as a) to b) above.

Homologation is done on basis of a standardized form. Because the form is intended for general use not all listed subjects is of relevance in all homologation cases. The form is updated continuously as far as necessary. Enclosures 1.a-nor and 1.a-eng shows the form (version 01.01.10) in separate Norwegian and English version.

Preliminary information may be limited to the information needs of the operator assume the Norwegian National Rail Administration has or possibly a short statement on what changes the enquiry concern. The Norwegian National Rail Administration will if required initiate further follow-up of the issue.

Enquiries may be directed to the address given in section 1.4.1.

Enquiries in connection with specific cases

The Norwegian National Rail Administration requires in certain areas documentation and test runs in order to verify compatibility. If no points of contact are given in the document, the enquiry according to paragraph 1.4.1 must apply. If the applicant, during the initial contact of a case, has been given a point of contact, the enquiry may be directed to the person in question.

If there is a need for test runs, it is essential to inform the Norwegian National Rail Administration well in advance, to insure that necessary conditions for the tests may be clarified and possible participation planned.

Form of publication

The document is published in a digital version and prepared for A4-format printing.

Distribution and revision

The document is available on the Norwegian National Rail Administration web-site: http://www.jernbaneverket.no/no/Marked/Leverandorinfo/Teknisk-regelverk-/

Electronic reading of the document provides the best functionality since all the references are linked. The electronic version is at all times considered the valid version.

The document is normally revised annually.

References

References in this document are according to the structure shown below.

 References in “Technical Regulations” Refer to: Chap. 5 This/Another chapter, this document Chap. 5 [JD 5xx] This/Another chapter, another document Appendix 5.a Appendix, This/Another chapter, this document Appendix 5.a [JD 5xx] Appendix, This/Another chapter, another document

# 2 Structure and mechanical parts

## 2.1 Vehicle structure

### 2.1.1 Strength and integrity

#### 2.1.2.2 Permitted train weight per meter for bridges

Appendix 3.d specifies the maximum train weight per meter for each railway line.

Maximum acceptable axle load is dependent on speed and class of superstructure. Permitted speed and axle load versus classes of superstructure is given in Overbygning/Prosjektering/Generelle tekniske krav.

Lines of superstructure class b, with low traffic load, are under some circumstances permitted an axle load of 22,5 tons for freight trains with maximum speed of 60 km/h. The total traffic load is not to exceed 2 million gross tons (MGT). Out of this total, the maximum traffic load for freight train axle loads larger than 20,5 tons is 1 MGT.

# 3 Track interaction and gauging

Minimum infrastructure gauge

NNRA railway tracks are based on the following standard infrastructure gauges:

• UIC GC
• A-85
• A-96
• A-96T
• A-C

Drawings with dimensions of the infrastructure gauges are shown in Underbygning/Prosjektering og bygging/Profiler og minste tverrsnitt, paragraph 2.1 and paragraph 2.2.

Curve overthrows

All horizontal dimensions are increased in circular curves, transition curves and on straight line in the vicinity of curves. The size of curve overthrows are based on a theoretical wagon of length 24 m and bogie pivot pitch distance 18 m.

Some locations have reduced space for curve overthrows based on the following theoretical wagons:

1. Axle distance = 13,5 m and overhang = 2,0 m
2. Axle distance = 10,0 m and overhang = 3,0 m

Lower limit of infrastructure gauge

The lower limit of infrastructure gauge is described in Underbygning/Prosjektering og bygging/Profiler og minste tverrsnitt. Confer paragraph Maximum height of check rail above rail head as well.

Track geometry

Minimum horizontal curve radius on the main track , excluding the Flåm Line, is 160 m. Minimum horizontal curve radius on the Flåm Line is 130 m. A diagram showing percentage of track versus curve radius is given in Figur 1.

Figur 1: Track percentage versus curve radius

Nominal track gauge

Nominal track gauge is 1435 mm.

Minimum length of straight line between reverse curves

Buffer locking in subsequent reverse curves with small radius, is prevented with the specifications in Overbygning/Prosjektering/Sporets trasé

Nominal track geometry parameters

Overbygning/Prosjektering/Sporets trasé show nominal values of the following basic parameters:

• Maximum cant (superelevation)
• Maximum cant excess
• Maximum cant deficiency
• Maximum rate of change of cant

Minimum vertical curve radius is 1000 m.

Nominal rail inclination

Nominal rail inclination is 1:20.

Maximum gradient of tracks excluding the Flåm Line is 2,7%. On the Flåm Line the maximum gradient is 5,5%.

Speed regimes

The following speed regimes are used:

Normal speed

Signed speed result in the following nominal quasi static centrifugal acceleration:

Tabell 1: quasi static centrifugal acceleration with normal speed
Superstructure class Radius of curves [m] aq [m/s2]
b 0,65
c og d R < 290 0,65
290 ≤ R ≤ 600 0,85
R > 600 0,98

Confer Overbygning/Prosjektering/Sporets trasé, on further details.

Plus speed

Signed speed result in the following nominal quasi static centrifugal acceleration:

Tabell 2: quasi static centrifugal acceleration with plus speed
Superstructure class aq [m/s2]
b 0,85
c og d 1,05

Tilting trains - speed

Signed speed based on a maximum quasi static centrifugal acceleration of 1,6 m/s2.

Limits of discrete geometrical track defects

The limits of the following discrete track errors are shown in Overbygning/Vedlikehold/Sporjustering og stabilisering.

Quality number of track geometry

The track geometry is periodically monitored using a Track Recording Vehicle. The test frequency is dependent on the quality class of the track and is given in Overbygning/Vedlikehold, Appendix 4b . Based on these recordings the standard deviation and quality number of the track is calculated. Overbygning/Vedlikehold/Sporjustering og stabilisering define the limits of standard deviation and the quality number.

The standard deviation is as a rule calculated on the bases of 200 m or 1000 m length of line. Standard deviation is calculated for these lengths and with accuracy as shown in Tabell 3.

Tabell 3: Calculation of standard deviation
Parametres Wavelength Measuring accuracy Basis of calculation
Standard deviation of vertical alignment σH 3 – 25 m ±0,2 mm 200 m
25 – 70 m ±0,5 mm 1000 m
70 – 150 m ±0,5 mm 1500 m
Standard deviation of horisontal alignment σP 3 – 25 m ±0,2 mm 200 m
25 – 70 m ±0,5 mm 1000 m
70 – 150 m ±0,5 mm 1500 m
Standard deviation of superelevation σR 3 – 25 m ±0,2 mm 200 m
25 – 70 m ±0,5 mm 1000 m

The quality number (K-number) indicates for which portion of a line all σ-values are within the limits. It is used to monitor track quality on longer sections of line. The K-number is calculated using the following formula:

${\displaystyle K={\frac {\sum l}{L}}\cdot 100\%}$    (1)

Σl = the sum of all track lengths where standard deviation is within the quality limits.

L = the monitored track length.

Rail profile

The following rail profiles exist:

• 60E1 (UIC60)
• 54E3 (S54)
• 54E2 (UIC54E)
• 54E1 (UIC54
• 49E1 (S49)
• S64
• S41
• NSB40
• 35,7 kg

Overbygning/Prosjektering, Appendix 6.b, shows drawings of the rail profiles with dimensions.

Figur 2: Distribution of rail profiles – the complete network

Limits of rail head wear is specified in Overbygning/Vedlikehold/Skinner.

• Standard rail grade is R260Mn [EN 13674-1]

In addition the following rail qualities exist [EN 13674-1]:

• R200
• R320Cr
• R350HT

Switches and crossings

Minimum curve radius in deviation in switches is 135 m. Minimum flangeway width

Minimum nominal flangeway width in crossings and between check rail/rail is 38 mm.

Maximum height of check rail above rail head

• Normal nominal height of check rail above rail head is 20 mm.
• Maximum nominal height of check rail above rail head is 60 mm.
• Considering maximum rail wear, the height of check rail above rail head can be up to maximum 70 mm.

Fixed nose protection

Nominal distance between the guiding edges of the check rail and the running edge of the nose is 1396 mm. Minimum in service distance between the guiding edges of the check rail and the running edge of the nose is 1392 mm.

Minimum permitted distance stock rail – remote laid switch blade

Minimum permitted distance between stock rail and remote laid switch blade is 58 mm.

Longitudinal creep resistance of the track

The longitudinal creep resistance of the track is dependent on the track construction and the ballast consolidation. The following general values may be specified for a non-loaded track.

 Concrete sleepers with spring loaded clips 8 - 12 kN/m rail Wooden sleepers with spring loaded clips 6 - 10 kN/m rail Newly adjusted track 3 - 7 kN/m rail

Generally, the track has sufficient resistance against braking- and acceleration forces if the acceleration/retardation does not exceed 2,5 m/s2. At very high axle loads (>25t) and train weights, analysis must be carried out proving that braking- and acceleration forces do not result in rail movements which reduce the safety against lateral movements of the track.

The track’s ability to resist braking forces is based on traditional braking of wheels. Magnetic rail brake shall only be used as an emergency brake.

Lateral resistance of the track - loaded track Lateral resistance of loaded track satisfy generally the following values:

• Locomotives, train sets and passenger wagons: 1,0x(10 + P/3) [kN]
• Freight wagons: 0,85x(10 + P/3) [kN]

On some sections of line where the track lacks lateral resistance due to missing ballast shoulder. The following applies:

• For locomotives, train sets and wagons: 0,85x(10 + P/3) [kN]

## 3.2 Vehicle dynamics

### 3.2.2 Equivalent conicity, wheel profile and limits

#### 3.2.3.1 Maximum acceptable dynamic wheel load

The maximum vertical dynamic wheel load shall not exceed:

1. Qlim= 90+Q0 [kN]

In addition, the following restrictions apply:

Tabell 5: Vertical dynamic wheel load depending on the permissible maximum speed of the vehicle
Axle load - 2Q0 (kN) Speed (km/h) maximum dynamic wheel load (kN)
2Q0 ≤ 225 ≤ 160 200
161 - 200 190
201 - 250 180
251 - 300 170
> 300 160
2Q0 > 225 ≤ 100 210
Locomotives on "Ofotbanen"
2Q0 = 300
≤ 50 220

Qlim = maximum allowed dynamic vertical wheel load.

Q0 = Static vertical wheel load.

Definitions and test conditions are given in [UIC 518]

#### 3.2.3.2 Maximum quasistatic wheel forces

The maximum quasistatic wheel forces in curves shall not exceed the following values:

1. (Qqst)lim = 145 kN for axle load ≤ 225 kN
2. (Qqst)lim = 155 kN for axle load > 225 kN
3. (Qqst)lim = 160 kN for locomotives on the "Ofotbanen" with axle load = 300 kN

Qqst = quasi-static vertical force

Definitions and test conditions are given in [UIC 518]

#### 3.2.3.3 Maximimum quasistatic guiding force

The maximum quasistatic guiding forces in curves shall not exceed the following values:

1. (Yqst)lim = 30 + (10500/Rm) kN for axle load ≤ 225 kN
2. (Yqst)lim = 70 kN for axle load > 225 kN
3. (Yqst)lim = 80 kN for for locomotives on the "Ofotbanen" with axle load = 300 kN

Yqst = quasi-static lateral force

Rm = mean radius of the track sections retained for the evaluation.

Definitions and test conditions are given in [UIC 518]

The maximum quasistatic track loading forces in small curves shall not exceed the following values:

(Bqst)lim = 180 kN

(Bqst)lim = Yqst + 0,83 • Qqst + [a – (30 + 10500/Rm)]

a = 53,3 for curves with radius 400 m < r ≤ 600 m

a = 67,5 for curves with radius r ≤ 400 m

Qqst = quasistatic wheel force

Yqst = quasistatic guiding force

Rm = mean radius of the track sections retained for the evaluation

Definitions and test conditions are given in [UIC 518]

## 3.3 Bogies/running gear

### 3.3.3 Wheel

#### 3.3.3.1 Maximum cavity of wheel tread

Double flange (“falsk flens” in Figur 3) resulting from wheel tread cavity (“hulløp”) may cause:

• excessive stress on a reduced contact surface between wheel and rail at the inner edge of the rail head
• the switches to absorb forces from the wheels where they are not supposed to do so and thus create risk of cracks or other kind of damage to the rails or switches.

Because of this the size of wheel cavity must be limited to maximum 2 mm. (Confer Figur 3).

Figur 3: Maximum permitted value of wheel thread cavity

#### 3.3.3.2 Maximum axle load dependent of wheel size.

In order to reduce damages by rolling contact fatigue on the rails, the wheels shall have a minimum diameter in accordance with appendix 3.e.

### 3.3.4 Wheel/rail interface (including wheel flange lubrication and sanding)

NNRA does not have lubrication equipment mounted on the track (there are some exceptions). It is assumed that the rolling stock lubricates the points of contact between the rail edge and the wheel flange in curves. The equipment shall produce a controlled and smooth lubrication film. Recommended guidelines for the lubrication equipment of rolling stock are given in appendix 3c.

Unless otherwise agreed with NNRA, each train shall lubricate sufficiently to compensate for its own wear of the lubrication film. Necessary amount of lubrication as specified in the Tabell 6 shall be applied as indicated in Figur 4.

Tabell 6: Necessary amount of lubrication
Axles total in train / lubricated axles Type of train cm3 per km
12/1 Multiple units –suburban traffic 0,150
16/1 Multiple units - long distance traffic 0,300
31/1 Passenger trains with locomotive 0,400
70/1 Freight trains with locomotive 0,600
Figur 4: Illustration of where lubrication of flange shall be applied

Tabell 6 and Figur 4 are extracts from the report ”Skinnesmøring og flenssmøring på det statlige jernbanenett” (Lubrication of rail and wheel flange). The report was prepared in cooperation with the Norwegian railway undertakings in 2004.

Specified amount of lubrication is derived from previous experience, but with correction in order to assure that every train lubricates sufficiently to compensate for iits own wear of the film of lubrication on the rail.

# 5 Passenger-related items

Platforms

Length of platforms

The normal length of platforms is specified in Overbygning/Prosjektering/Plattformer og spor på stasjoner.

Height of platforms

• Normal platform height is 550 mm or 760 mm. (measured perpendicularly on the track plane)
• Some platforms are built at a height of 350 mm.
• Some platforms are built at a height of 700mm.

Distance platform edge – centre of track

Width of platform

Overbygning/Prosjektering/Plattformer og spor på stasjoner specifies the requirements of platform width.

The gradient of the track along the platform

New tracks along platforms are normally not constructed with greater gradients than 0.5%. However, there are exceptions on existing tracks.

Minimum distance platform edge – continues obstruction on the platform

Continuous obstructions on platforms are generally not located closer than 2 m from the platform edge.

# 6 Environmental conditions and aerodynamic effects

Norwegian topography and climate pose great challenges for railway operations. This will be clear from the text below. It should be noted that several of the long distance railway lines are exposed to varied climatic conditions since they go from regions of typical coastal climate, further through narrow valleys towards high mountain areas and further through valleys ending in regions of somewhat coastal climate. In the winter season, this means from an area with no snow and temperatures above freezing the train may in a short time travel through a landscape of considerable lower temperatures and deep snow.

Landslide dangers/Landslide exposed lines For reasons of topography, parts of the railway network are exposed to landslides and avalanches. Landslides may be categorised as follows:

• Slides of rocks on the line (rockslide/rockfall).
Water and ice expansion are the most commonly initiating effects and the phenomenon is most common during the rainy autumn season or during the spring season with changeable mild and cold weather. Rock may fall from the tunnel ceiling, especially in connection with frost expansion.
• Landslides of earth on the line (flood slides/earth slides).
Earth slides are often triggered during bad weather conditions with large amounts of water, during large precipitation and/or during rapid snow melting.
• Movement/subsidence of the permanent way (clay and silt slides).
Movement or subsidence of the substructure is occurring due to the lack of stability of the earth masses. This is often due to changing drainage conditions. Heavy rainfalls over a short period of time may result in slides of this type.
• Avalanches and ice slides
When winds and precipitation result in heavy snow on steep hillsides, there are increasing possibilities of avalanches.

It is primarily in open landscapes without trees that avalanches occur. The railway lines passing through the mountainous regions are particularly exposed. The danger of avalanches is generally low in periods of stable, cold weather, but will rise with increasing winds, snowfalls and temperature. Water that freezes may result in considerable ice masses on steep mountains. When temperature rises during the spring season, such ice masses may fall onto the track.

The landslide/avalanche activities vary according to seasonal changes. Statistically, the landslide/avalanche activities are lowest in the summer. The danger of rock and earth slides increase during rainy periods in the autumn. However, the statistics show that landslide activities are greatest during snow melting periods in the spring. The snow melting period is characterised by continuous water flooding during the day combined with frost expansion during the night.

The railway lines which are particularly exposed to landslides/avalanches are the Bergensbanen line from Myrdal to Voss, and the Nordlandsbanen line from Grong to Bodø. More detailed description of landslide/avalanche exposed regions is given in the NNRA report “Description of landslide/avalanche exposed regions”, published 20.10.98.

Landslides/avalanches are considered a serious safety risk and it is a NNRA goal that the railway line must be free of landslides/avalanches at any time. In the most exposed regions, avalanche detection systems are installed. An overview is given in the Network Statement, Annexe 3.3.4.1.

Wild animals/Livestock

In the rural regions there are frequent incidents of collisions with animals on the tracks. This may during the summer season consist of livestock like sheep and cows, but primarily moose and reindeers and in particular during the winter season when snow is deep and the animals are tempted by cleared tracks and vegetation close to the line. The frequency of collisions is particularly high on certain railway lines. During 2001; 819 moose and 319 reindeers were killed on Norwegian routes.

Typical weight of an adult moose is 300-600 kg.

Lightning

Lightning may occur throughout the country, primarily in the summer season. The intensity is highest in Agder, Telemark and the Eastern region. During the winter season, lightning may occur along the coast from Lindesnes to Finnmark in connection with arrival of cold air above warm sea.

Seismic activities

Most earthquakes in Norway occur along the coast and around the Oslo field. About five earthquakes are monitored every year, and mostly measured to below 3 on the Richter scale. Earthquakes, strength below 3 on the Richter scale are not considered detectable by human beings. Earthquakes, strength above 3 on the Richter scale are very rare in Norway. Damage on rolling stock due to earthquakes has not been recorded in Norway.

Pollution

Salinity

The salinity content of the air is highest in the coastal regions. In periods of storm and coastal winds, the salinity content of the air may increase, and it is known that salt on the permanent way in these regions may result in shorts on the track circuits.

Dust

There is generally little dust in the air along Norwegian railway tracks. Ballast chips are used as ballast and this release little dust. However, some dust may arise during a short period when ballast is fresh and newly deposited.

Ballast

The nominal size of ballast chips is 25 to 63 mm on the main track.

Vegetation/particles/insects

In the summer season there are periods with considerable amount of insects in the air. The intensity is greatest in June/July. In late summer on certain routes there are considerable amount of seeds from plants in the air. During the season of falling leaves in the fall, there is considerable amount of leaves blowing on to the permanent way. This may result in slippery tracks, which may reduce the ability of heavy trains to climb gradients, and makes it difficult to restart after stopping. Reference is made to Network Statement, Annex 3.2.2.4 showing an overview of gradients. Improved adhesion is achieved using sanding equipment on the locomotives.

NNRA flush the tracks by means of water on the most exposed routes.

Sand

Sand as part of the landscape is in Norway mainly covered by vegetation. Therefore sand is not regarded as a problem to the railway operations in Norway.

## 6.1 Impact of the environment on the vehicle

### 6.1.1 Environmental conditions impacting on the vehicle

#### 6.1.1.1 Altitude

Norway is a hilly/mountainous country and altitude varies considerably on Norwegian railway lines. Most railway lines are classified as A2 in accordance with EN 50125-1, i.e. as high as 1000m. above sea level. The Bergen Line has a long stretch where altitude is more than 1000m. This defines parts of the Bergen Line in class A1 (as high as 1400m) in accordance with EN 50125-1.

#### 6.1.1.2 Temperature

Norway is a country with large temperature variations throughout the year. Norwegian railway lines extend from regions with typical maritime climate with moderate differences between winter and summer temperatures to inland regions with cold winters and periods of high summer temperature. This is where we measure high and low temperature records of the country. In some of these regions, the temperature can be expected to go below -40 degree C and as high as 35 degrees C in the summer. This defines Norwegian railway lines in class T2 (from -40 to +35 degrees C.) according to EN 50125-1.

In appendix a (pdf) is shown where and which months low temperatures in intervals of t < -25 C, t < -30 C and t < -35 C most probably will exist along railway lines in Norway. The overview is based on meteorological data collected from 20 monitoring stations in the vicinity of the railway line.

#### 6.1.1.3 Humidity

Humidity of free air along the Norwegian railway lines is probably within the norms/guidelines in EN 50125-1 Chap. 4.4, a yearly average of less than 75% relative humidity, 30 days throughout the year between 75% and 90% relative humidity and certain days between 95% and 100% relative humidity.

It should be noted that the maximum absolute humidity in tunnels of 30g/m3 in accordance with this standard, never will be reached since air temperatures in Norwegian tunnels will not reach such high values.

In long Norwegian tunnels, the combination of high relative humidity and low temperatures outside the tunnel during the winter may result in condensation/frost on the cold surfaces of the train when it enters the tunnel. However, temperature gradients of more than 3 degree K/s and temperature variations of more than 40 degree K, ref. EN 50125-1, hardly occur.

#### 6.1.1.4 Rain

The yearly precipitation shown large geographical variation. In coastal areas in the west and the north there are more than 2000 mm rain during the year, in many places. However, the rain intensity in those areas is not as high as experienced inland during the summer. A rain intensity of 6mm/min. as mentioned in the EN 50125-1, p. 4.6, is relevant for Norwegian situations, as a maximum.

#### 6.1.1.5 Snow, ice and hail

In the winter season, precipitation is in the form of snow in all parts of the country. However, there exist large geographical snow variations and variation of snow covered periods. In the southern and westerly coastal areas, snow is normally infrequent and the snow covered periods are normally not continuous throughout the winter season. Inland areas, where temperatures are low, there are normally moderate snow, while the snow covered period is long. In high mountain passes there are considerable amounts of snow and the snow arrive early and last until late spring. In addition there are considerable wind on these routes, which result in hard packed snow.

Snow consistence
Fresh snow is fine grained, with low specific weight. It is lower at lower temperatures. Typical specific weight of fresh snow is 0,1 g/cm3. Later on, the grain size and the specific weight increase. This process accelerates with higher temperatures. Old, wet snow may have a specific weight of 0,8-0,9 g/cm3. Strong winds result in drifting snow. The snow grains are ground and the snow is more tightly packed, resulting in increased specific weight. During this process the snow crystals freeze, resulting in very compact snowdrifts.

Fresh snow is easily blown by passing trains and may stick to the running gear and under floor equipment of the wagons and the locomotive. During these conditions considerable amounts of snow can be attached to the bogies and, as a possible consequence, resulting in blocking of springs and reduced brake efficiency.

Wet or frozen snow will not be blown during train passage like fresh fine grained snow does.

In this connection it must be noted that snowdrifts of high density and very special consistence may occur on the Jærbanen line. Heavy snow mixed with sand and salt from the sea, may result in very compact snowdrifts. As a consequence derailing have occurred.

Snow in Norway will cover all categories mentioned above.

Snow removal
Railways in Norway have long tradition with snowploughs on locomotives and train sets. It is expected that the trains to a great extent clears the snow off the track.

On station- and shunting areas NNRA removes the snow according to specified procedures. Also on open line NNRA clears the tracks when needed during heavy snowfall. However, it may take some time to clear the snow and for this reason snow depth may at times be considerable greater than the limit that initiates snow removal. High mountain routes may in a few cases be closed due to deep snow and strong winds.

In accordance with the local variations in winter temperatures, the yearly amount of frost vary from almost an insignificant level at certain places to (- 35000 – 40000) h degree C in inland regions. This results in frost in the ground. Uneven subsistence/upheavals (frost upheaval) of the track may result in more track faults than normal, in periods with lengthy frost in places with insufficient frost prevention.

The radiation from the sun is in Norway never higher than 1120 W/m2. This is the specified value in accordance with EN 50125-1 p. 4.9. The daily duration of sun radiation is longer than 8 hours (specified in the above EN) in the middle of the summer, in many regions of Norway.

### 6.1.2 Aerodynamic effects on the vehicle

#### 6.1.2.1 Crosswind effects

As guidelines of maximum wind speeds in Norway, EN 50125-1 chap. 4.5.1 is appropriate. A maximum wind speed of 35 m/s is possible, 50 m/s in exceptional cases.

Generally the highest wind speeds occur in open areas near the sea and on the high mountain routes.

Confer NS 3491-4 Table A.1 that shows an overview of reference wind speeds in Norwegian Counties. The reference wind speed is defined as the average wind speed in 10 minutes, 10 m. above an assumed flat landscape according to terrain category II (defined in the standard) in a wide area. According to the table, the reference wind speed vary between 22 and 31 m/s.

# 8 Onboard power supply and control systems

## 8.2 Functional and technical specification related to the interface between the vehicle and the energy subsystem

### 8.2.1 Functional and technical specification related to the electric power supply

As a temporarily solution supplementary information and regulation for power supply is found in Technical specification 02: Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles. The specification includes information about the different chapters below in this section together with guidelines for testing of the different requirements. For #Harmonic characteristics and related over-voltages on the overhead contact line the specification contains the requirements as a part of the compatibility prosess. For the other chapters, the valid requirements are found in the Annex to the Railway Vehicle Regulations.

# 9 Power supply

Traction power supply

For information about and requirements to rolling stock regarding traction power supply, see common Norwegian-Swedish document "Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles" in appendix d. This document also includes requirements regarding verification and documentation.

Appendix 4.a is a form that may be used for collection of required input data for power system studies and simulations.

Train pre-heating installations

The Norwegian National Rail Administration offers three different systems for connecting rolling stock to stationary pre-heating facilities.

For information about and requirements to rolling stock regarding train pre-heating installations, see common Norwegian-Swedish document "Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles" in appendix d particularly section 4.3.14 "P14: Train pre-heating systems". This document also includes requirements regarding verification and documentation.

For more information about the systems and geographic location of connection points see Network Statement section 5.4.3.1.

Catenary

For information about and requirements to rolling stock regarding catenary, see appendix e, "Approval of new trains. Pantographs and pantograph-overhead contact line interaction”, are also in force. Appendix e also includes requirements regarding verification and documentation.

Appendices

Appendix a Required vehicle information for power system studies and simulations
Appendix b Examples of converter unit response to changes in the catenary load
Appendix c Description of simulation model
Appendix d Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles
Appendix e Approval of new trains. Pantographs and pantograph-overhead contact line interaction

#### 9.6 System energy disturbances

##### 9.6.1 Harmonic characteristics and related over-voltages on the overhead contact line

The following requirements are still valid as a part of the compatibility study to be performed:

• P3: Line voltage distortion (chapter 4.3.3.2)
• P8: Low frequency power oscillations (chapter 4.3.8.2)
• P9: Electrical resonance stability (chapter 4.3.9.2)
• P10: Current harmonics (chapter 4.3.10.2)

## 9.10 Electrical power supply and traction system

### 9.10.1 Energy consumption measurement

For vehicles that will operate in several geographical price and/or network areas on the national rail network, the energy measurement system shall be equipped with a location function according to TSI LOC&PAS 4.2.8.2.8. Alternatively will Jernbaneverket charge the energy based on key figures of consumption and regeneration per gross tonn kilometer according to Jernbaneverkets standardvilkår for avregning av 16 2/3 Hz energi.

## 9.11 Electromagnetic compatibility

### 9.11.3 Electromagnetic compatibility with other vehicles and with the trackside part of the railway system

#### 9.11.3.1 Track circuits

TS 50238-2 applies.

Train detection based on track circuits of the following types:

• Conventional
• Insulated rail joints
• Frequency 95/105 Hz
• DC track circuits
• Insulated rail joints
• FTGS
• Jointless track circuit separation
• Frequency 4,7 – 16,5 kHz
• TI 21 (EBI Track 200)
• Jointless track circuit separation
• Frequency 1,5 – 2,6 kHz

#### 9.11.3.2 Axle counter systems

TS 50238-3 applies.

Types of axle counter systems listed in EN 50283-3, Annex A which are currently used in Norway:

• ZP30H
• ZP 43
• WSD Sys 2 (960 kHz).

Further axle counter systems are expected to be installed. These may be of other types.

# 13 Onboard control command and signalling

## 13.2 Onboard signalling

### 13.2.1 National onboard signalling systems

The national class B system is Ebicab 700.

# 14 Specific operational requirements

## 14.3 Lifting diagram and instructions for rescue

NNRA obligation to re-establish normal traffic

Extract from (in English): Regulations on the Allocation of Railway Infrastructure Capacity and the Levying of Charges for the Use of the National Railway Network (Allocation Regulations)

Section 9-2 Special measures in the event of disturbance

In the event of disturbance to train movements caused by technical failure or accident, the infrastructure manager must take all necessary steps to restore the normal situation. In an emergency and if absolutely necessary on account of a breakdown, the infrastructure manager may require the party who has been allocated infrastructure capacity to make available to him the resources which he considers are the most appropriate to restore the normal situation as soon as possible.”

Preconditions for rolling stock

In order prepare for an efficient line clearance activity NNRA assumes rolling stock to comply with the specification below unless another specification is agreed with NNRA in advance.

Possibility of connection to another rolling stock

NNRA assumes that:

• rolling stock in random end can be connected to another vehicle equipped with standard UIC coupling and haul or be hauled, as far as otherwise possible also push or be pushed, with the connection.
• all additional equipment necessary to do such a coupling in one random end shall always be available in the rolling stock.
• coupling to another rolling stock can be done relatively quickly at a random location without help from more than one person in addition to the normal staff on the train.
• the coupling with some margin for jerking has capacity for the maximum tractive effort of the rolling stock.
• at least one of the train crew have necessary skills to do the coupling, prepare vehicle for haulage and forward information about the vehicle relevant for the haulage or give information of where this information in English and/or Norwegian text is stored on the train.

It is also assumed as a general rule that the rolling stock has automatic UIC train brake which can be connected together with the mechanical coupling.

Dispensation from this requirement will depend on:

• probability and consequence of a technical problem when assessed together with the planned use (location, kind of activity and duration)
• whether the technical construction of the rolling stock and the coupling together with the described procedure make sufficiently safe hauling in order to clear the railway line possible.

Haulage without active brakes in the last vehicle of the train presupposes dispensation given by the traffic controller (confer the regulation Forskrift 4. desember 2001 nr. 1335).

Information necessary in order to plan line clearance activity

Necessary information in order to undertake track clearance activity as re-railing and hauling of rolling stock is assumed always to be available at the rolling stock either as labels on the vehicle(s) or as readily understandable manuals in each vehicle.

This requirement does not apply to information which is obvious or can be assumed to be common knowledge for those who do the specific tasks.

Rolling stock suitability as rescue vehicle

In order to prepare organising of line clearance activity NNRA collect relevant information during the initial compatibility study for each class of rolling stock.