Rolling stock/Supplementary information and regulations/Appendix/Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles

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1 Executive Summary

The international standards EN 50 121, EN 50 163, EN 50 238, EN 50 388, and others, define the framework for the electrical compatibility between the rolling stock and the infrastructure systems on electrified railways. However, since the infrastructure systems for historical reasons are not equal in all countries, each national rail administration must define the detailed application of the standards in that country, and specify additional requirements in fields that are not covered by the standards. The present document defines the details of the electrical railway infrastructure in Norway and Sweden, and specifies the electrical compatibility requirements for the rolling stock. In general, these requirements are in accordance with the relevant standards, but certain technical differences exist, also compared to the systems in the other 16.7 Hz countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.

1.1 General Characteristics

The following is a prioritized list of the problems and general system characteristics that have typically caused train suppliers the greatest difficulties when introducing a new vehicle in the Norwegian and/or Swedish railway network:

  1. Low frequency power oscillations, when supplied from rotating converters
  2. High levels of line voltage distortion, in particular the 3rd and 5th voltage harmonics, and high crest voltages
  3. Regenerative braking and line voltage limitation
  4. Power factor control for improvement of the power capacity of weak supply lines
  5. The weak power supply in general, characterized by long feeding distances, single-track lines, small rotating as well as static 50 Hz to 16 2/3 Hz converter stations, and a high number of phase-angle controlled vehicles

1.2 Technical Requirements

1.2.1 Signal interference and telecommunication

Ref. System Requirement / interference limit Details
S1 DC (S only) 25 A, and limits for the DC component at transformer inrush. 3.2.1
S2 95 Hz and 105 Hz (N only) 1.00 A. Monitoring required. 3.2.2
S3 TI21 track circuits (N only)

16 bands 1532 Hz to 2610 Hz

TBD A 3.2.3
S4 FTGS track circuits (N only) 4 bands

4.75 kHz to 6.25 kHz 8 bands 9.5 kHz to 16.5 kHz

1.00 A

0.50 A

S5 Psophometric currents 1.50 A 3.2.5
S6 Broad-band (N only) TBD-7 kHz 7-9 kHz > 9 kHz 1.00 A

0.50 A 0.33 A

S7 Radiated interference According to EN 50 121-3-1 3.2.7
S8 Outside antennas According to EN and BVS standards. 3.2.8
S9 Resistance between wheelsets < 0.1 Ω. 3.2.9

1.2.2 Power supply compatibility

Ref. System Characteristics / requirements Details
P1 Line voltage levels Umin2 = 10 kV (N only). Voltage jumps may occur at any level between Umin2 and Umax2. 4.3.1
P2 Line voltage frequency The line frequency is 16 2/3 Hz. The railway power supply is synchronized to the 50 Hz mains. 4.3.2
P3 Line voltage distortion The line voltage may be heavily distorted, with up to 5 kV 3rd and 5th harmonic. The crest voltage may exceed 30 kV. 4.3.3
P4 Neutral sections Procedural requirements for the loco driver. 4.3.4
P5 Power factor (cos(φ)) The limits for cos(φ) are more strict, compared to EN 50 388. It is generally only possible to regenerate any significant power back into the weak supply system, if a power factor (cos(φ)) control is applied. 4.3.5
P6 Maximum line current limitation Procedural requirements for the loco driver. 4.3.6
P7 Current or power control at low line voltage The power control specified by EN 50 388 is of particular importance due to the weak supply. 4.3.7
P8 Low frequency power oscillations The rotating converters have a poorly damped eigen-frequency at approximately 1.6 Hz. The vehicles must not cause the system to become unstable at any condition. 4.3.8
P9 Electrical resonance stability The input admittance of the vehicles must be passive at all frequencies > 90 Hz. 4.3.9
P10 Current harmonics The limits for the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th current harmonic are 5.0%, 3.0%, 3.0%, and 3.0%, respectively, of the rated current of the vehicle. 4.3.10
P11 Relay coordination In accordance with EN 50 388. 4.3.11
P12 Transformer inrush (AC) The peak inrush current must be < 2.00 kA. 4.3.12
P13 Regenerative braking The vehicle must not cause the line voltage to increase above 17.5 kV (S) or 18.0 kV (N), in regenerative braking.

The vehicle must not cause the voltage locally at other types of vehicles to exceed 17.5 kV to any greater extent than what is seen in the existing system (S only).

P14 Train heating In accordance with UIC standards. Inrush tests required. 4.3.14
P15 Energy measurement The ERESS (European Railway Energy Settlement System) system is used. 4.3.15
P16 Other electrical equipment Certain requirements regarding equipment in the driver’s cab. 4.3.16
P17 Ice on the overhead line Significant DC levels have been measured in the primary currents of existing vehicles at OHL ice conditions. 4.3.17

1.2.3 Approval Procedures and Tests