Rolling stock/Supplementary information and regulations/Appendix/Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles

Innhold

1 Executive Summary

The international standards EN 50 121, EN 50 163, EN 50 238, EN 50 388, and others, define the framework for the electrical compatibility between the rolling stock and the infrastructure systems on electrified railways. However, since the infrastructure systems for historical reasons are not equal in all countries, each national rail administration must define the detailed application of the standards in that country, and specify additional requirements in fields that are not covered by the standards. The present document defines the details of the electrical railway infrastructure in Norway and Sweden, and specifies the electrical compatibility requirements for the rolling stock. In general, these requirements are in accordance with the relevant standards, but certain technical differences exist, also compared to the systems in the other 16.7 Hz countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.


1.1 General Characteristics

The following is a prioritized list of the problems and general system characteristics that have typically caused train suppliers the greatest difficulties when introducing a new vehicle in the Norwegian and/or Swedish railway network:

  1. Low frequency power oscillations, when supplied from rotating converters
  2. High levels of line voltage distortion, in particular the 3rd and 5th voltage harmonics, and high crest voltages
  3. Regenerative braking and line voltage limitation
  4. Power factor control for improvement of the power capacity of weak supply lines
  5. The weak power supply in general, characterized by long feeding distances, single-track lines, small rotating as well as static 50 Hz to 16 2/3 Hz converter stations, and a high number of phase-angle controlled vehicles

1.2 Technical Requirements

1.2.1 Signal interference and telecommunication

Ref. System Requirement / interference limit Details
S1 DC (S only) 25 A, and limits for the DC component at transformer inrush. 3.2.1
S2 95 Hz and 105 Hz (N only) 1.00 A. Monitoring required. 3.2.2
S3 TI21 track circuits (N only)

16 bands 1532 Hz to 2610 Hz

TBD A 3.2.3
S4 FTGS track circuits (N only) 4 bands

4.75 kHz to 6.25 kHz 8 bands 9.5 kHz to 16.5 kHz

1.00 A

0.50 A

3.2.4
S5 Psophometric currents 1.50 A 3.2.5
S6 Broad-band (N only) TBD-7 kHz 7-9 kHz > 9 kHz 1.00 A

0.50 A 0.33 A

3.2.6
S7 Radiated interference According to EN 50 121-3-1 3.2.7
S8 Outside antennas According to EN and BVS standards. 3.2.8
S9 Resistance between wheelsets < 0.1 Ω. 3.2.9

1.2.2 Power supply compatibility

Ref. System Characteristics / requirements Details
P1 Line voltage levels Umin2 = 10 kV (N only). Voltage jumps may occur at any level between Umin2 and Umax2. 4.3.1
P2 Line voltage frequency The line frequency is 16 2/3 Hz. The railway power supply is synchronized to the 50 Hz mains. 4.3.2
P3 Line voltage distortion The line voltage may be heavily distorted, with up to 5 kV 3rd and 5th harmonic. The crest voltage may exceed 30 kV. 4.3.3
P4 Neutral sections Procedural requirements for the loco driver. 4.3.4
P5 Power factor (cos(φ)) The limits for cos(φ) are more strict, compared to EN 50 388. It is generally only possible to regenerate any significant power back into the weak supply system, if a power factor (cos(φ)) control is applied. 4.3.5
P6 Maximum line current limitation Procedural requirements for the loco driver. 4.3.6
P7 Current or power control at low line voltage The power control specified by EN 50 388 is of particular importance due to the weak supply. 4.3.7
P8 Low frequency power oscillations The rotating converters have a poorly damped eigen-frequency at approximately 1.6 Hz. The vehicles must not cause the system to become unstable at any condition. 4.3.8
P9 Electrical resonance stability The input admittance of the vehicles must be passive at all frequencies > 90 Hz. 4.3.9
P10 Current harmonics The limits for the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th current harmonic are 5.0%, 3.0%, 3.0%, and 3.0%, respectively, of the rated current of the vehicle. 4.3.10
P11 Relay coordination In accordance with EN 50 388. 4.3.11
P12 Transformer inrush (AC) The peak inrush current must be < 2.00 kA. 4.3.12
P13 Regenerative braking The vehicle must not cause the line voltage to increase above 17.5 kV (S) or 18.0 kV (N), in regenerative braking.

The vehicle must not cause the voltage locally at other types of vehicles to exceed 17.5 kV to any greater extent than what is seen in the existing system (S only).

4.3.13
P14 Train heating In accordance with UIC standards. Inrush tests required. 4.3.14
P15 Energy measurement The ERESS (European Railway Energy Settlement System) system is used. 4.3.15
P16 Other electrical equipment Certain requirements regarding equipment in the driver’s cab. 4.3.16
P17 Ice on the overhead line Significant DC levels have been measured in the primary currents of existing vehicles at OHL ice conditions. 4.3.17

1.3 Approval Procedures and Tests

The table below outlines the tests that are required for approval. The time needed for the tests depend on a) the number of different operation modes for the vehicle, and b) the free time on the closed track the actual time periods for testing. Most tests must be performed night-time. Experience shows that the categories T1 and T2 require at least two nights each plus transport time, and category T3 1-2 days. In Sweden, category T4+T5 is generally also one day due to the transport. It is expected that category T6 is performed at the suppliers workshop or similar facilities.

It should be noted that these approximate time indications are valid only for a vehicle that is in its final and approvable state, with all software functions and all parameters frozen. Any tests required for the supplier’s own purposes (i.e., to make the vehicle approvable, or for fine-tuning of software) come in additional and up front.

The test categories T1, T2, and T4 may be performed in either country. The mixed traffic tests T3 must be performed in the country/countries where the vehicle will operate. Test T5 must be performed in Sweden. The tests T6 may be performed anywhere with 16 2/3 Hz or 16.7 Hz supply. For an approval in Norway, parallel measurements in the substation must be made during test T1.

Three different acceleration-brake operation sequences are defined: LOOP, ABAB, and ARO (please refer to section 3.3.4 and 4.4.4).

Cat. Condition Suitable test sites Scope and train operation Max. line speed
T1 Closed track, rotating converters Alvesta-Emmaboda (S)

Hønefoss-Nesbyen (N)

S1-S6 (LOOP) P1, P2, P5-P10, P13 (ABAB, ARO) < 130 km/h
T2 Closed track, static converters Eskilstuna-Södertälje (S)

Gardermoen line (N)

S1-S6 (LOOP) P1, P2, P5-P10, P13 (ABAB, ARO, voltage jump) 200 km/h
T3 Mixed traffic Borlänge area (S)

Oslo area (N)

S1-S6, P1-P3, P5-P10, P13 (Normal operation)
T4 Transformer inrush (peak AC) Ockelbo (S)

Oslo S (N)

P12
T5 Transformer inrush (DC, S only) Ockelbo (S) S1
T6 Other tests Any possible S7, P14
T7 Non-test approval N/A S8, S9, P4, P11, P15-P17

All vehicles must perform tests up to their speed limit during test category T2. Locomotives must be loaded by a reasonably heavy train (≈1-2 t per kN max. tractive effort, or ≈50-100 t per MW max. power, whichever is the greater) during all tests T1 and T3, in order to create realistic acceleration times. During tests T2, a somewhat lighter load may be used (some 25% of the values above).

1.4 Deliverables

The supplier must deliver the following documents and other information regarding electrical compatibility. Before testing:

  • Clause-by-clause comments to the present specification section 3 and 4, explaining how the technical requirements are met
  • Calculated, previously measured, or otherwise estimated signaling interference and psophometric current levels
  • The input admittance versus frequency characteristics
  • A simulation study regarding low frequency power oscillations
  • Descriptions and characteristics of key functions, such as the current or power control at low line voltages, voltage limitation at regenerative braking, cos(φ)-control, etc.
  • Calculations regarding the voltages locally at other types of vehicles (S only)
  • Design descriptions, main circuit diagrams, data sheets, and other relevant general information
  • Test reports and other documentation showing that the vehicle meets the radiated interference requirements of EN 50 121-3
  • Documentation that the vehicle is compatible with relevant requirements outside the field of EMC (such as running dynamics, kinematic envelope, braking performance, etc.), to obtain track access for the EMC tests
  • A test plan, including descriptions of the instrumentation and data analysis

After testing:

  • The test report, including individual conformity statements for each requirement S1-S9 and P1-P16, and including explanations, references to the detailed test results and printouts, and so on.

Before operation:

  • Vehicle data for power system studies

2 Introduction

2.1 Abstract

The international standards (EN, IEC, UIC, etc.) that deal with electromagnetic and functional compatibility between railway vehicles and infrastructure, are kept on a quite general level and do not cover all aspects of relevance for each individual country and national rail administration. Typically, different signalling systems are used in different countries, meaning that specific national requirements apply in addition to the common standards.

In Norway and Sweden, not only the signalling systems, but also the power supply differs significantly in comparison with other 16.7 Hz countries.

It is the objective of the present document to compile all relevant information and all requirements that apply to rolling stock used in Norway and Sweden, with respect to compatibility with the electrical infrastructure and other vehicles; i.e. the power supply, existing rolling stock, and infrastructure systems such as track signalling circuits, telecommunication lines, etc.

Jernbaneverket and Banverket are committed to harmonize, as far as possible, not only their technical requirements, but also their requirements regarding approval procedures and tests. It must be noted, however, that due to a number of technical differences between the two countries, this objective cannot be fulfilled for all requirements.

The document is first and foremost based on the standards EN 50 121 part 1 to 5, EN 50 163, EN 50 238 and EN 50 388. This however does not imply that other standards are not valid.

The document concentrates on the special national conditions that are valid for Norway or Sweden, and on topics that are not completely covered by international standards.

The tests described in the document are considered being type tests. This means that if tests are performed in one country, and the test procedures and conditions are representative also for the other country, then the tests, the recorded data, and the results may also be used for the performance evaluation and approval in the other country, even if the limits are different (i.e., tests in one country can provide data also for the other country).

Requirements regarding the mechanical interaction between the pantograph and the contact line are presented in other documents. Furthermore, the requirements on train control systems, such as ATC (= Automatic Train Control) or ERTMS, and interference with train radio and digital systems such as PCM, ISDN, etc., are not included in this document.

2.2 About this document

2.2.1 Structure

This document exists in three versions:

  • One full version with all sections 1-4. This version is an appendix to Banverkets document BVS 543:19300.
  • One version with the sections 1-3 only, and section 4 left unused. This version is an appendix to chapter 5 in Jernbaneverkets document JD 590.
  • One version with the sections 1, 2, and 4 only, and section 3 left unused. This version is an appendix to chapter 4 in Jernbaneverkets document JD 590.

2.2.2 Validity

Section 1 and 2 of this document are for information only. The formal and valid requirements are given in section 3 and 4. In case of any conflicts, section 3 and 4 take precedence over section 1 and 2.

2.2.3 Responsibility

Section 3 of this document is under the responsibility of the signalling departments at Jernbaneverket and Banverket, while the power supply departments are responsible for section 4.

2.2.4 Coordination between sections and document versions

Certain parts of section 3 and 4 are harmonised and to some extent equal, in particular the requirements regarding testing. These sections are marked with a vertical line in the left margin, as shown here. Any changes to these sections should be coordinated between the signalling and the power supply departments.

2.2.5 National differences

Most requirements apply equally in the two countries. If a requirement is valid solely in one country, this is highlighted with a (Norway only) or (Sweden only) in the level three header for that requirement. Sometimes (e.g., in tables), the shorter (N only) or (S only) is used.

If a requirement is different in the two countries, the following identification is made:

NORWAY AND SWEDEN: Here the parts of the requirement that are common to the two countries are listed. If there are no common requirements, this heading is not used.

NORWAY: Here the requirements that are specific to Norway are listed.

SWEDEN: Here the requirements that are specific to Sweden are listed. The “Sweden only”-section goes on until the next level two, level three, or level four heading, whichever is first.

2.2.6 Accuracy

If a requirement is quantitative, i.e. there is a numerical limit; the accuracy of the limit is given by the number of digits used for the requirement.

2.3 Abbreviations and Definitions

2.3.1 Abbreviations

ABAB Operation sequence (see 4.4.4)
ABS Absolute value
AC Alternating current
A/D Analog to digital Conversion
ARO Operation sequence (see 4.4.4)
AT Autotransformer
ATC Automatic train control (called ATP in most countries)
ATP Automatic train protection (called ATC in the Nordic countries)
BP Band-pass
BT Booster transformer
BW Butterworth
bw Bandwidth
DAT Digital audio tape
DC Direct current
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility
EMI Electromagnetic interference
fC Centre frequency
FFT Fast fourier transform
FTGS Type of track Circuit
GPS Global positioning system
ID (Data recording) idendity
IIR Infinite impulse response
IN Rated current
LOOP Operation sequence (see 3.3.4)
N Norway
N/A Not applicable
OHL Overhead (contact) line
P1-P17 Compatibility requirements, power supply systems
PWM Pulse width modulation
RMS Root-mean-square
RSS Root-sum-square
S Sweden
S1-S9 Compatibility requirements, signalling and telecommunication systems
T1-T7 Test categories
TBD To be defined
THD Total harmonic distortion
TI 21 Type of track circuit

2.3.2 Definitions

Bandwidth In accordance with EN 50 238
Bin Output from a FFT. For example, a FFT with a 1 s window length produces bins at the frequencies 0 Hz (DC), 1 Hz, 2 Hz, . . .
Closed track A line section that is single-end fed, and where no other rail vehicles are activated or in operation
Crest voltage The highest value within one period of the rectified AC voltage. For an ideal sinusoidal voltage, the crest value equals 2 times the RMS value.
Fault mode Degraded vehicle operation mode with one or more subsystems (converter, filter, or similar) cut-out
Hanning Weight function used in combination with the FFT, in order to reduce the effect of transients
Normal operation Vehicle operation mode with all subsystems in intended operation
Quasi-stationary An operation condition where the variables (e.g., RMS voltage or current) vary so slowly that no oscillations or other dynamic effects are triggered
Rated current The line current drawn by the vehicle when operating at full power at the nominal voltage of 15.0 kV
RMS Root-Mean-Square. Please notice that different window lengths are used for different purposes. Generally, the window length is defined as a part of each specific requirement
Spectral leakage The phenomenon that a FFT bin at a certain frequency is “contaminated” with energy originating from signal components at the frequencies of the neighbouring bins. This is an effect of the Hanning window
Window Time duration over which data is analysed, e.g., 60 ms or 1 s

2.4 Scope

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

This document is foremost intended for manufacturers or operators who plan:

A) to specify and design new vehicles for operation in Norway and/or Sweden,

B) to modify or rebuild already existing vehicles, or

C) to introduce already existing vehicles that have not previously been operating in Norway or Sweden.

For this purpose, the document provides detailed information about the infrastructure in the two countries. Some of this information is found in connection with the various requirements, but most is given in the attached appendices.

NORWAY:

The validity and the application of the requirements in this document are defined in the JD 590 “Characteristics of the infrastructure” chapter 1 section 1.4.2. The document JD 590 is an overall document that describes the infrastructure and the compatibility requirements in Norway for all relevant fields. This present document concerning electric compatibility is hence a part of JD 590 as:

  • Signal interference is treated in JD 590 chapter 5 “Signalling and train control systems”
  • Telecommunication is treated in JD 590 chapter 6 “Telematic applications”
  • Power supply is treated in JD 590 chapter 4 “Energy”

SWEDEN:

The requirements in this document are valid for:

  • First time use of rolling stock or reintroduction of rolling stock that have been considered out of use permanently.
  • Rolling stock that is going to be introduced on sections of track not included in current acceptance.
  • Changes, both in hardware and software, in rolling stock usage not in compliance with current acceptance.
  • Modifications of rolling stock in a way that may affect the compliance with the current acceptance.

This means that the requirements in this document are valid for new electrical traction vehicle and old used vehicles that have not been used in normal operation in Norway or Sweden before. An old vehicle used in Norway is not automatically accepted in Sweden.

The requirements in this document can however be discussed when applied on imported old vehicles, except for the Electrical Safety and requirements regarding signalling circuits and psophometric currents. Requirements regarding signalling circuits are always valid due to safety aspects. Requirements regarding psophometric currents are valid due to effects for third party.

A summary of how and for which rolling stock the requirements are valid is given in the table below:

Table 1. Use of the requirements (Sweden only).
Age of the rolling Stock Category of rolling stock
Vehicle design started after 2007-01-01 Vehicles designed before 2007-01-01
Vehicles specifically designed for use in Sweden only All requirements are mandatory. Already accepted, but any rebuilds or modifications should aim for improving compatibility, and must not reduce compatibility.

For already accepted vehicles, which are to be put in operation on new lines for which the acceptance is not valid, relevant requirements are valid in order to maintain traffic and not to disturb the electrical infrastructure. Relevant requirement are decided on a case-to-case basis.

Vehicles designed for cross border operation, or for use also in other countries Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.

Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the requirements are in fundamental conflict with technical requirements from other countries of operation.

Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.

Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that a rebuild would be in fundamental conflict with technical requirements from other countries of operation, or if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.

Vehicles originally designed for use in other countries, but imported for future use solely in Sweden Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.

Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.

Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.

Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.

2.5 General information about the infrastructure

This chapter gives a short introduction to traction power supply systems and track signalling circuits in Norway and Sweden. More specific data about the infrastructure is given as information in APPENDIX 1: Infrastructure data and related information.

2.5.1 General

In Norway and Sweden the earth resistivity is high in comparison to most of the rest of Europe. This has direct an effect on traction power supply design to avoid disturbing other electrical systems.

2.5.2 Norway

In Norway there are 2500 km of electrified railway (2004). The network around the capital Oslo is meshed with both double and single-track lines. Around this centre there are long (> 500 km) single-track lines to other parts of the country. The Norwegian single-phase network is much weaker than in rest of Europe. In some areas the overhead contact line impedance is so large that changes in the power demand from one train may cause voltage variations up to some kilovolts. Both tap changer vehicles, phase controlled vehicles and inverter vehicles with and without filters operate in the network.

The power supply system is of the type 15 kV, 16.7 Hz. It is synchronized with the 50 Hz national grid, i.e. a decentralized system. There is however a small centralized system in the Oslo area consisting of a 55 kV, 16 2/3 Hz single-phase high voltage transmission line fed by one small hydro power station. This system is connected to the contact lines system via 5 substations (which can be located together with rotary converters).

Apart from the small centralized system the power is fed into the traction power supply system by rotary and static (power electronic) converter stations, which convert the energy from 50 Hz, three-phase, to 16 2/3 Hz, single-phase. The number of active converter units in each converter station is adapted to the hourly variation in load demand to allow maintenance and reduce the losses. There is one small hydro power station feeding directly to the overhead contact line system. In normal operation there is often a one-to-one relation between one converter station capacity and load demand form one train. Due to this, low frequency oscillations have often caused severe problems when new vehicles have been introduced.

In normal operation the system is interconnected between the feeding points, but in order to maintain both rail tracks and contact line, sectioning of the system is a common operation mode.

At present, the booster transformer (BT) system, with or without return conductors, is the main feeding system for contact lines in Norway. However, Jernbaneverket plans to build autotransformer (AT) systems for main long distances lines. There are also some series capacitances and one shunt capacitor in the single-phase network in order to reduce inductive contact line impedance, strengthening the voltage and feeding reactive power. The return path for the traction current, regardless of system and apart from return conductors or any extra earth conductors, always comprise both rails, with exception of stations where single rail track signalling circuits occurs.

On electrified lines AC track signalling circuits are used, either double rail or jointless. Most common are 95 and 105 Hz uncoded track signalling circuits. ATC equipment type EBICAB 700 is used on most lines.

2.5.3 Sweden

In Sweden there are 9 543 km of electrified railway (2004). The railway network is meshed except for the northern part of Sweden. Most of the lines are single track lines except for lines close to Stockholm and the lines between the cities Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.

The power supply system is of the type 15 kV, 16.7 Hz. The system is decentralized and synchronized with the 50 Hz national grid. The power is fed into the traction power supply system by converter stations, which convert the energy from 50 Hz, three-phase, to 16 2/3 Hz, single-phase. The converters are of both rotary and static (power electronic) type. The number of active converter units in each converter station is adapted to the load.

In order to reduce the number of converter stations, the contact overhead line system is also fed by a 132 kV system (a two-phase 2 x 66 kV system with directly earthed midpoint) with transformer substations. This system is used from the middle to the northern parts of Sweden. There is no power generation connected directly to the 132 kV system. The system is fed from transformers connected to the 15 kV 16,7 Hz busbars at the converter stations.

The two feeding systems for contact lines in Sweden are; BT-system (booster-transformer system) with one or two return conductors and AT-system (auto-transformer system). Sometimes also a strengthening wire (reinforcement wire, booster wire) occurs. This is more common in the northern part of Sweden, and this type of reinforcement wire is always used on AT-systems. Its objective is to lower the impedance. Sometimes an additional earth wire is used. This type of earth wire is planned to become standard on AT-system lines. A combined AT/BT-system is currently under investigation for introduction (a first small installation is made).

Most of the railway lines are fed from both ends (double sided feeding). Due to the high earth resistivity booster transformer systems with return conductors are mainly used, when not autotransformer systems are implemented, due to EMC requirements. This causes normally higher line impedance than in the central and south of Europe, where the return current can use the rails and earth all the way to the feeding point. The system is relatively weak with rather high voltage drops. Only DC track signalling circuits exist on electrified lines in Sweden. At some non-electrified low traffic lines, radio block systems are used.

Only one of the rails, the S-rail, is used for the return path of the traction current. This is regardless of what type of feeding system that is being used (BT- or AT-system). The other rail is always isolated, I-rail, and is used for the DC track signalling circuits.

ATC equipment type EBICAB 700 is used on most lines.

2.6 Revision history

05-01-2007: First version, based on the NIM NES-R10 report with the same title as this document, from 27.11.2006.
07-01-2009: Second Version

3 Signalling Systems and Telecommunication

(Applies to “Signal interference and telecommunication” only. Please see JD590 chapter 5 and 6)

4 Power Supply

4.1 References

4.1.1 Normative references

No. Standard Applicable to
Signalling Power
1.1 EN 50 110-1: Operation of electrical installations. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.2 EN 50 121: Railway applications – Electromagnetic compatibility (relevant parts in this context). Part 1: General Part 2: Emission of the whole system to the outside world Part 3-1: Rolling stock – Train and complete vehicle Part 3-2: Rolling stock – Apparatus Part 4: Emission and immunity of the signalling and telecommunication apparatus Part 5: Emission and immunity of fixed power supply installations and apparatus CENELEC, European Standard. X X
1.3 EN 50 122-1 Railway applications- Fixed installations Part 1: Protective provisions relating to electrical safety and earthing. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.4 EN 50 128: Railway applications – Communications, signalling and processing systems – Sofware for control and protection systems. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.5 EN 50 153: Railway applications – Protective provisions relating to electrical harzards. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.6 EN 50 155: Railway applications Electronic equipment used on rolling stock. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.7 EN 50 163: Railway applications – Supply voltages of traction systems. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.8 EN 50 207: Railway applications – Electronic power converters for rolling stock. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.9 EN 50 215: Railway applications – Test of rolling stock after completion of construction and before entry into service. CENELEC, European Standard. X X
1.10 EN 50 238: Railway applications – Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.11 EN 50 388: Railway applications – Power supply and rolling stock – Technical criteria for the coordination between power supply (substation) and rolling stock to achieve interoperability. CENELEC, European Standard. X
1.12 UIC 550, 550-1, 550-2, 550-3: Power supply installations for passenger stock. X
1.13 UIC 552: Electrical power supply for trains – Standard technical characteristics of the train line. X
1.14 UIC 554-1: Power supply to electrical equipment on stationary vehicles from local mains system or another source of energy at 220 V or 380 V, 50 Hz. X
1.15 UIC 512: Conditions to be fulfilled in order to avoid difficulties in the operation of track circuits and treadles. X
1.16 BVS 545.43501: Requirements on external antennas for railway vehicles (only published in Swedish: ”Krav på yttre antenner för järnvägsfordon”). Banverket. Only normative for Sweden. X
1.17 ITU-T Recommendation O.41: Psophometer for use on telephone-type circuits. X

4.1.2 Other references

No. Standard Applicable to
Signalling Power
2.1 HS TSI: Directive 96/48/EC – Interoperability of the trans-European high speed rail system, 96/48 ST14EN03 ENE part 2, Draft from 22.06.2006. X X
2.2 Characteristics of infrastructure. Document JD 590. Jernbaneverket, 01.02.2005. X X
2.3 Electro-technical requirements on new electrical vehicles regarding compatibility with the power supply system and other electrical vehicles, BKE 00/14, rev. H. Banverket, July 2004. X X
2.4 Rotating converters BV/JBV: Description of simulation model. emkamatik document 06-0132, ver. 1. Stefan Menth, emkamatik, 18.9.2006. X
2.5 EN 61000-4-7, March 1993. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques. Section 7: General guide on harmonics and interharmonics measurements and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment connected thereto. IEC, CENELEC. X

4.2 Safety with respect to electricity

4.2.1 Information

If the vehicle is designed such that it is possible to climb up on the roof of the vehicle without difficulty and without additional means, infrastructure manager will define restrictions for parking the vehicle under live overhead contact line.

NORWAY:

For more information, see Rolling stock/Supplementary information and regulations/Appendix/Guideline on vehicle protection against electrical hazards to third party climbing.

4.2.2 Requirements

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 153: The rolling stock shall be designed such that it is possible to operate the electrical installations in accordance with the following regulations:

NORWAY:

Any valid regulation from the Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency planning (Direktoratet for Samfunnssikkerhet og Beredskap) must be followed. Information can be found at http://www.dsb.no/

SWEDEN:

Any valid regulation from the National Electrical Safety Board (Elsäkerhetsverket) for operations of electrical installations must be followed. Information can be found at http://www.elsakerhetsverket.se/ If there is any accessible electrical equipment on the roof of the vehicle, it shall be possible to connect the grounding and short-circuiting tools used by Banverket to earth points on the electrical equipment. Otherwise the vehicle must have own grounding tools. According to Elsäkerhetsverket, grounding via a transformer is not allowed. EN 50 110-1 Operation of electrical installations is applicable to work activity on Swedish railway electrical installations with some exceptions and applications to overhead contact line.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Necessary information about disconnection and grounding of rolling stock either as labels on vehicles or as readily understandable manuals in each vehicle is required in order to handle deviation situations. This requirement does not apply to information which is obvious or can be assumed to be common knowledge for those who do the specific tasks.

4.2.3 Verification

Verification shall be made by conformity statements that the rolling stock fulfils standards and regulations.

4.2.4 Documentation

The conformity statements shall be presented in a report.

4.3 Compatibility requirements

In this chapter all requirements regarding compatibility between vehicles and the power supply are compiled. All requirements, when applicable, are valid for one vehicle and for the maximum configuration of vehicles (i.e. multiple units) for which the approval must be valid. This document describes requirements and infrastructure as is. The infrastructure managers are continuously trying to improve the infrastructure in Norway and Sweden. New or newly imported old rolling stock must not however require changes in the existing infrastructure and rolling stock in order to operate properly.

4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels

4.3.1.1 Information

The values in this section refer foremost to stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. For dynamic effects see also section 4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations and 4.3.9 P9: Electrical resonance stability.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Under normal operating conditions (in accordance with the definition in clause 3.16 in EN 50 163:2004), the traction power supply complies with the requirements for minimum and maximum voltage given in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004, and for Umean useful(zone) and Umean useful(train) for conventional TSI lines and classical lines given in clause 8 of EN 50 388:2005. Exceptions and specifications are given below.

The nominal voltage is 15.0 kV RMS. The voltage at the feeder station busbar is usually adjusted to 16.5 kV RMS independent of load (below max load), or to 16.5 kV RMS with a gently declining characteristic as a function of inductive current in order to improve load-sharing of reactive power between converter stations. Declining characteristic means that the voltage is controlled in such a way that the voltage will drop linearly as a function of the inductive load, and such that the voltage will decrease about 2-5% from 16.5 kV RMS at full and purely inductive load.

There are no requirements for the unspecified period in time in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004 for maximum voltage, if the increased contact line voltage is caused by regenerative braking of rolling stock. This implies that a train may continuously generate up to Umax2 during regenerative braking.

The instantaneous values for the line voltage can be very high. Due to the high harmonic content, a crest factor above 1.8 can occur giving crest values of up to about 32 kV. Please also refer to section 4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion.

The line voltage level may change abruptly, due to cut-in or cut-out of substations or feeding points. The jumps may be from any value to any other value within the line voltage interval 10.0 kV to 18.0 kV RMS.

NORWAY:

Existing older rolling stock may not have an efficient current limitation as a function of pantograph voltage and can therefore force the line voltage to be low at sections where the distances between traction power supply feeding points are long. Hence it must be expected minimum train voltages of Umin2 = 10.0 kV RMS and Umin1 = 11.0 kV RMS in accordance with definitions in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004.

SWEDEN:

Existing Swedish vehicles have not been designed to Umax2 = 18.0 kV RMS, and cannot be expected to withstand voltages higher than 17.5 kV RMS.

4.3.1.2 Requirements

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Rolling stock must be able to operate under voltage conditions given above.

NORWAY:

Rolling stock is not allowed to cause voltages outside the limits in EN 50 163:2004. See also section 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low line voltage and 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.

SWEDEN:

Rolling stock is not allowed to cause voltages below the limits in EN 50 163:2004. New rolling stock must not cause the line voltage locally at any existing vehicle to increase above 17.5 kV to any greater extent (amplitude and time duration limited to approximately 5 seconds) than what is already seen in the existing system. A compatibility study according to EN 50 388 must be made, showing that this requirement is met. A train may continuously generate up to 17.5 kV RMS during regenerative braking.

See also section 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low line voltage and 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.

4.3.1.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Rolling stock ability to withstand the voltage levels must be tested in accordance with EN 50 215:1999, clause 9.15.

Practical short circuit tests on a line as described in EN 50 215:1999, clause 9.15.4 shall not be performed. These tests are to be performed as factory tests instead. See also chapter 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking, and its reference to EN 50 388:2005, clause 12, regarding regeneration to a neutral section or a short circuit.

For more details about tests see chapter 4.4. The line voltage must be continuously recorded throughout all test runs, and the correct operation of the train must be documented.

Voltage jump tests must be performed according to chapter 4.4.4.8.

4.3.1.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Conformity statement and test report.

4.3.2 P2: Line voltage frequency

4.3.2.1 Information

The values in this section refer foremost to stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. For dynamic effects see also section

4.3.2.2 P8: Low frequency power oscillations.

Synchronous frequency is within the variation given by EN 50 163:2004, clause 4.2.

The traction power system frequency is synchronous with the national grid in Norway and Sweden, hence is then also dependent on variation in three-phase network frequency. fn = 16 ⅔ Hz

Normally the frequency variation is ± 0.033 Hz and under special conditions the variation is ± 0.166 Hz due to frequency variations in three-phase network.

4.3.2.3 Requirements

Rolling stock shall be able to operate under frequency variations in accordance with EN 50 163:2004, clause 4.2.

4.3.2.4 Verification

Conformity statement.

4.3.2.5 Documentation

Conformity statement.

4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion

4.3.3.1 Information

THD (total harmonic distortion) is defined as:

, n=4,5,6...
where:
U1 = fundamental harmonic voltage
Un = various higher-order harmonics
Figure 7: below shows examples of measured line voltage waveshapes.

The line voltage THD may exceed 0.3 p.u. or 30%. Table 4 below gives a typical example of the statistical distribution of the voltage distortion parameters.

Table 4. Line voltage distortion parameters.
Parameter Percentile
90.0% 99.0% 99.95%
Crest voltage 29.5 kV 31.2 kV 32.4 kV
Total RMS voltage 16.7 kV 17.0 kV 17.2 kV
16 ⅔ Hz fundamental, RMS 16.4 kV 16.7 kV 16.9 kV
3rd harmonic, RMS 3.4 kV 4.0 kV 4.7 kV
5th harmonic, RMS 1.8 kV 2.7 kV 3.6 kV
7th harmonic, RMS 0.4 kV 0.7 kV 1.3 kV
THDU 23% 30% 34%

The values of this table are based on approximately 20 hours of recordings made during tests with a locomotive on the Borlänge-Ludvika/Krylbo-Frövi-Eskilstuna line sections in Central Sweden, October 2005. Recordings and analysis by L. Buhrkall.

The values at the 99.95% percentile may be taken as worst-case, excluding short transients etc. Please notice that the highest levels of the low-order harmonics (3rd, 5th, and 7th) do not necessarily occur simultaneously.

Higher-order harmonic voltages exist, typically generated by vehicles without any interference filter.

The harmonics specified above may have all possible angles. Typically, the phase angle of the 3rd harmonic is the opposite of that of the fundamental, such that the crest value of the line voltage becomes the highest possible. To a lesser extend, this is also the case with the 5th harmonic.

4.3.3.2 Requirements

Rolling stock must be able to function satisfactory when the contact line voltage includes harmonic distortion as described above.

Limit values for generated and conducted current harmonics are specified in section 0 P10: Current harmonics.

4.3.3.3 Verification

Conformity statement and tests. Tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.3.4 Documentation

The conformity statement and the results of the tests and documented function shall be presented in a technical report.

4.3.4 P4: Neutral sections

4.3.4.1 Information

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Neutral sections (A.C. phase separation sections) are arranged at:

  • most feeding points/stations – normally unenergized and floating
  • most switching posts – normally unenergized and floating
  • all coupling posts – normally energized if network is interconnected, otherwise unenergized and floating
  • all series capacitances – normally unenergized and floating, (series capacitances exists only in Norway)

Temporarily sectioning of overhead contact line network is necessary in order to do maintenance and is consequently a frequent mode of operation. In case of short circuit in a railway line, or special operation of the utility grid, sectioning of the network is also used.

Infrastructure is not equipped with automatic information about neutral sections. Information about the state of the neutral sections is given to driver by optical signals along the line. Manual on board operation is hence permitted.

NORWAY:

The normal length is 90 m, but length down to 40 m and up to 350 m exists. In Norway neutral sections of 402 m length is planned for the future to avoid bridging by train with two current collectors.

System separation sections do not exist.

SWEDEN:

The normal length is 180 m, but length down to 60 m exists. In railway yards neutral sections with lengths of down to 2 m can occur. The neutral sections are normally not earthed, but at narrow bridges and at construction or big maintenance work this may occur.

4.3.4.2 Requirements

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 5. Feedback of regenerative braking power should also be brought to zero when entering a neutral section.

4.3.4.3 Verification

NORWAY:

Verification shall be made by means of a technical description on how the vehicle behaves when entering neutral sections. The description can include calculations and functional diagrams.

SWEDEN:

Verification shall be made by means of a technical description on how the vehicle behaves and how the driver shall behave when entering neutral sections. The description can include calculations and functional diagrams.

4.3.4.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

The conformity statement and verification shall be presented in a technical report.

4.3.5 P5: Power factor

4.3.5.1 Information

The power factor, λ, in this section is defined as:

Where



Hence, in this document:

and concerns only the fundamental.

In many other cases apparent power is defined or measured as:

which can give very misleading results if harmonics are present, and hence shall not be used.

4.3.5.2 Requirements
Figure 8: Allowed power factor for the fundamental. For the area that requires stability investigations see also chapter 4.3.8 and 4.3.9.

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 6.

NOTE 1: At very long feeding distances, the application of a capacitive cos( can lead to network breakdown, over voltages, exceedance of power transfer stability limits, or other dynamic effects, within the normal operation range of line voltage and active power. At lower voltages, however, it could be beneficial from a power transfer point of view to let cos() go even lower than 0.95 (cap), but in case this possibility is utilized, it must be treated in accordance with clause 10 in EN 50 388:2005 (section 4.3.8 and 4.3.9 in this document). I.e., a stability study must be performed in order to document that the vehicle is stable at these conditions. Please also refer to the section 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low voltage.

NOTE 2: Even if the power factor is allowed to decrease freely (inductively) during regeneration (electrical braking), according to EN 50 388:2005, clause 6, in order to keep the voltage within limits, it is required that the power factor is not inductive (below 0.95) when the voltage goes below 16.5 kV. Please also refer to section 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.

As an alternative to the requirements in EN 50 388:2005, it is recommended that the limits defined in figure 8 below are used (also in this figure, the power factor refers to the fundamental, as in EN 50 388:2005).

The figure is valid for all possible situations (all instantaneous RMS-values, but transients excluded) with the restrictions mentioned above.

Using the figure means that the applicant does not have to perform the calculations given in EN 50 388:2005, clause 6.2. The verification can be made by measurements, see section 4.4.

NOTE: It is acceptable that the requirement for cos(φ) ≥ 0.95 in driving mode is violated when operating at conditions with ice or frost on the overhead contact line. Under these conditions, a higher reactive current may be used at no or low power in order to maintain a continuous current for the traction and auxiliary converters. Approximately 15 A rms inductive reactive current per current collector is allowed.

Both Norway and Sweden have exceptions from the general requirements stipulated in EN 50 388:2005 and in the draft of the High Speed TSI from June 2006:

1) Capacitive power factor (below 0.95 cap.) is not allowed at voltages over 16.5 kV in Norway and Sweden, due to the risk that it becomes difficult or impossible for other vehicles to use regenerative braking because of high voltage on the overhead line. (This exception is stipulated for Sweden in both EN 50 388:2005 and the HS TSI and for Norway in the draft of the HS TSI.)

2) In regeneration mode (electrical braking) the train shall not behave like a capacitor greater than 60 kVAr at any regenerative power, i.e. capacitive power factor is prohibited during regeneration. The exception of 60 kVAr capacitive reactive power is to allow the possibility to have filters on the high voltage side of the train/traction unit. These filters shall not exceed 60 kVAr capacitive reactive power at the fundamental. (This exception is stipulated for Sweden and Norway in both EN 50 388:2005 and in the draft of the HS TSI.)

NOTE: The value 0.95 in the figure above is expected to be improved to 0.98 in the future for inductive power factor, as stated in EN 50 388:2005.

4.3.5.3 Verification

The requirements shall be verified by calculations, using measured power factors at different operating conditions, in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 6, 13 and 14. As an alternative, the verification can be made by tests and the use of figure 8. The conditions for measurements and tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.5.4 Documentation

The conformity statement and verification shall be presented in a technical report. The report shall include the calculations or a description of the calculations when calculations in accordance with EN 50 388:2005 have been made. Also measured values shall be presented in the report. If the alternative method of the requirements and verification is being used the report shall include figures presenting the measured results. A description of the used instrumentation shall be included. If cos(φ) control is used in the vehicle, the corresponding control characteristics shall be documented. If capacitive cos(φ) is applied in traction, line power versus voltage diagrams shall be included for lines with various line lengths / impedances.

4.3.6 P6: Maximum current limitation

4.3.6.1 Information

NORWAY AND SWEDEN

Maximum allowable train current is given in EN 50 388:2005 Table 2 with specifications and exceptions as given below.

NORWAY:

Due to the mixture of line having different power supply capacity, the Norwegian lines are divided into classes of maximum allowable train current (Imax). These classes and where they apply is given in register of infrastructure (Network Statement).

NOTE: There are additional limitations of the maximum line current in regenerative braking, see section 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.

For older rolling stock without automatic current limitation, maximum allowable train current (Imax) must however be considered in each individual case.

Norwegian infrastructure is not prepared for automatic current selection. An on board installed technical current or power selector which limit the current or power demand of the train to the given electrical capacity of the line is not required. In case such a selector is not installed, the maximum current limiting must be carried out manually by the driver.

Note that if voltage dependent current limitation is not used, voltages below the line voltage level requirements given in EN 50 163:2004 (see 4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels) may occur when collecting Imax on some sections, even when no other trains are present in the section.

SWEDEN:

The value for Sweden in Table 2 in EN 50 388:2005, clause 7, is valid for vehicle drawing current in tractive mode. During regenerative braking the current can exceed this value, due to cos(φ)-control (if present) in order to keep the voltage within limits.

4.3.6.2 Requirements

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 7.

4.3.6.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

No specific verification needed.

4.3.6.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN: No specific documentation needed.

4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low voltage

4.3.7.1 Information

Due to long feeding distances and consequently large voltage drops, it is necessary to adapt the level of power consumption depending on the line voltage.

NOTE: Application of such a voltage dependent current or power limiting device may increase the risk for low frequency oscillations. See section 4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations.

NOTE: Application of a capacitive cos() at low line voltages may increase the power that can be transferred at long feeding distances, but may also lead to instabilities due to line voltage collapse or feedback effects. See section 4.3.5 P5: Power factor and 4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations.

4.3.7.2 Requirements

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 7.

NOTE: The requirements in EN 50 388:2005, clause 7, are based on line current. Control based on power can be easier to realize and fulfils the basic requirements (avoid breakdown of voltage and let the vehicle find a stable working point) as well. Hence it is allowed for the applicant or manufacturer to design this control as a power limitation control, even though it is not strictly according to the standard. If the limitation is designed as a power control, the current shall not exceed the limits given in EN 50 388:2005, clause 7.2. It must however be stated how the limitation is designed.

4.3.7.3 Verification

Verification shall be made by a technical description of how the requirements are fulfilled. Verification shall also be performed by tests on a weak single fed line by measuring the voltage and current. The tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.7.4 Documentation

The conformity statement and verification shall be presented in a technical report. The tests shall at least be presented in a U-I-diagram with the limits drawn in the diagram for both traction and braking. As additional information, a U-P-diagram should be given.

4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations

NOTE: The whole subject of low frequency power oscillations is currently under investigation, and the requirements in section 4.3.8 reflect present (mid-2009) knowledge. A thorough update of the section is expected within the next two years.

4.3.8.1 Information
Figure 9: Example of an unstable vehicle, low frequency power oscillations.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

See also Appendix A4.1.1 for the background of low frequency oscillations.

Both Norway and Sweden have a large number of rotary frequency converters feeding the railway network with 16 2/3 Hz from the public 50 Hz grid. These converters are synchronous-to-synchronous machines and have no damping windings on the motor side. Hence the pole angle oscillations – which have an eigen-frequency of about 1.6 … 1.9 Hz – are poorly damped. This characteristic is very specific for both countries and leads to special requirements which may not exist in other networks. However, it is possible to meet these requirements as various projects have shown.

If an oscillation is excited, the rotor in the synchronous-to-synchronous converter oscillates relative to the synchronous frequency (rotates faster and slower than the synchronous speed in a cycle with the oscillation frequency), and the single phase voltage and frequency may vary from the stationary value (frequency oscillations up to and possibly above 3% of fn can be used as indicative values). This means that the zero crossings of the voltage may not be as predictable as indicated by the specified stationary frequency variation. Experience has showed that vehicles may have problems to work properly or at all when this type of oscillations occurs.

Periodic changes in active power in the single-phase network occurring at the eigen-frequency of the converter can be greatly amplified, typically 10 times, through the converter unit. This means that periodic changes in the active power at the single-phase side can cause 10 times higher power oscillations on three-phase side of converter. This may cause noticeable voltage fluctuations and power oscillations in public utility grid. The eigen-frequency of the converters depends on the size of the converter unit, the number of units running in parallel, the characteristics of the utility network feeding the station, etc.

Figure 9 shows an example of an unstable vehicle (an example from Norway including measurements in the substation).

The figure shows measured voltage and current together with calculated active and reactive power in a situation when a vehicle makes the power system unstable.

All values are referred to their respective quasi-stationary values. It is important to notice that the vehicle active power, reactive power and hence current oscillates more or less 180 degrees phase shifted relative the line voltage amplitude oscillation. This has a de-stabilizing impact on the system and should be avoided. Oscillations are also expected to cause mechanical stress and degeneration of the converter units.

More information on dynamic behaviour of rotary converters is given in Appendix A5.

It is important to notice that the installed power of a train may in some cases reach or even exceed the rated power of a rotary or static converter. Low traffic density implies that the voltage controller in a vehicle and in the converter unit can work directly against each other in a one to one relation. Hence low frequency oscillations of about 3-4 Hz have also been observed together with static converters in some cases.

Long feeding distances and the correspondingly high line impedance can also lead to low frequency oscillations if the vehicle controllers are inadequately structured and parameterised.

By generating or consuming reactive power (cos(φ)-control), the line voltage at the location of the vehicle can be lowered or raised in a controlled manner, hence reducing the voltage drop along the line. However, this control strategy has the potential of creating low frequency oscillations in the feedback loop line voltage → reactive power → line voltage. The line impedance as well as the number of vehicles in a feeding section acts as gain factors in this loop.

A simple time domain simulation model of the oscillatory rotary converter has been developed. The aim is to provide an impression of how the rotary converter behaves. This model can be used by railway vehicle manufacturers for compatibility studies prior to the first test with new vehicles. However, experience has shown that the model due to its simplicity gives more optimistic results regarding stability than real life measurements. Description of the model can be found in Appendix A5.4.

NORWAY:

It is possible that the rail network in future will be divided into different classes based on low frequency oscillations and each class with different requirement.

4.3.8.2 Requirements
Figure 10: Load step response of an isolated rotating converter (load step to zero).

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

The vehicles shall not cause low frequency oscillations, neither by feedback effects (including cos(φ)-control) nor by repetitive controller action. Furthermore, the vehicles must not obstruct damping of low frequency oscillations that have been excited by other vehicles or events in the network. Any already excited oscillation, e.g., due to a sudden load change, shall be well damped. This means that the damping of the ≈ 1.6 Hz oscillation that is seen in the load step response of an isolated rotating converter (see figure 10) must not be reduced when a vehicle is present on the line, compared to the damping (time constant ≈ 3 s) of the converter itself.

These requirements must be assured for all relevant operational conditions, including maximum number of vehicles in a feeding section, and outage of a substation and single-side feeding. The precise conditions and consequently the parameters depend on the application of the vehicle (e.g. freight locomotives or rapid mass transit).

A train must have a stable behaviour close to a converter station with an installed power equal to or lower than the rated power of the train. The same train shall be stable at 60 km distance from the same substation on a line with single-side feeding.

The vehicle must be immune against the oscillations in such a way that its operation is not improperly influenced by oscillations caused by the vehicle itself, or by other vehicles or events in the network.

Repetitive controller action (e.g. in the adhesion control or line current limitation) must not take place with deterministic intervention frequencies between 1.0 and 2.0 Hz.

Feedback loop effects must not cause oscillations within the frequency range of 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. Such effects should in general also be avoided for other frequency ranges.

For new vehicles, a stability study according to EN 50 388:2005, clause 10 shall be performed in its relevant parts. It is recommended that the simulation results (step 10 of the compatibility process) are presented before the tests in the real railway system begin.

See Appendix A4.1.2 and A4.1.3 of this document for further information on stability studies.

As the properties of stability are a result of the co-operation between several systems, Jernbaneverket and Banverket have chosen to state only the issues that are emphasised when considering whether rolling stock have sufficient properties of stability:

  • How often and for which reasons oscillation occurs: Experience shows that some oscillation in phase position for rotary converters may be difficult to avoid, e.g. when wheel slip and slide protection or protective relays are activated. When no extraordinary causes exist, such as the ones described above, the rolling stock is expected not to cause oscillations.
  • Any oscillation that is initiated by the vehicle, by other vehicles, or by any event in the power supply, will normally be damped by the converters as shown in appendix A5. Vehicles must not react to an oscillation in a way that maintains the oscillation or obstruct the damping of the oscillation.
  • The relationship between oscillations in 3-phase power and single-phase power at converter units: A large amplification indicates that the converter is exposed to power variations that excite oscillations in an unfavourable way.
  • Oscillation amplitude for contact line voltage and/or power: Increased amplitude deteriorates the conditions for both existing and future rolling stock. A definite limit will be such that new or modified vehicles shall not cause worse maximum values than values existing today.

NORWAY:

Numerical requirements for the vehicle-infrastructure interface are under investigation. Until this investigation has been finished, the requirements are as described above, and the verification has to include measurements in the converter station.

4.3.8.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

The verification shall be done by testing for typical operational as well as one or several worst case situations. These situations shall be as similar as possible to those investigated in the simulation study. A test plan according to EN 50 388:2005, clause 10, step 12, is required before starting the tests. The tests are specified in chapter 4.4 Validation and tests.

NORWAY:

At present, additional measurements in the converter station are required to ensure proper low frequency behaviour. Details are given in chapter 4.4 Validation and tests.

4.3.8.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

The documentation consists of the conformity statement, the simulation report, and the test report. The simulation report shall point out the stability limit in terms of line impedance, number of vehicles and substation power rating, and show which oscillation frequency would be created if this stability limit is exceeded.

Note that the simulation report must be ready at the time of writing the test plan (see chapter 4.4.4 Requirements prior to testing). The test results shall also be presented in a report. The report shall include diagrams with the relevant variables (voltage, current, active and reactive power, etc.) both full-scale and zoomed during oscillations as in figure 9, i.e., in a way such that it is possible to read how the different variables change relative each other.

4.3.9 P9: Electrical resonance stability

4.3.9.1 Information

See Appendix A4.2.1 for the background of electrical resonance stability.

Both networks have similar and demanding conditions in view of resonance stability, since they include vehicles and static converters with partially large filters, a dedicated 132-kV transmission system (Sweden only, Norway has a small 55-kV system), long feeding distances between substations, and in the future an increasing amount of cables in the 15 kV network. Autotransformer systems also have a lower resonance frequency than other supply systems.

For values regarding line resonances see Appendix 1 section A1.5.9 and A1.510, which gives numerical values for booster transformer and autotransformer systems.

4.3.9.2 Requirements

The relevant characteristic for resonance stability is the frequency response (or small signal behaviour) of the input admittance Y(f) seen from the pantograph into the vehicle. If the real part Re(Y(f)) is negative at any frequency f, then the vehicle is capable of causing instabilities when combined with critical resonance points in the power supply system or other vehicles. These instabilities will appear as self-excited oscillations at the corresponding frequency f. In such a case, the vehicle is said to be “active”, otherwise it is “passive”.

Vehicles must be passive for all frequencies above the frequency fg as defined below. This is the acceptance criterion as required by EN 50 388:2005, clause 10, step 7.

The criteria for electrical resonance stability are applicable for inverter vehicles only. fg is 87 Hz.

For all types of vehicles special attention must be taken if passive filters are used. For frequencies where the filters are capacitive the filters must be well damped and the filters must not produce overvoltages.

4.3.9.3 Verification

The frequency response Y(f) is preferably obtained by measurements, but for the time being, real-time simulations with hardware-in-the-loop are also accepted. The test specification for frequency response measurements used by Swiss State Railways (SBB) and Austrian State Railways (ÖBB) describes a reasonable measurement set-up and scale. The upper frequency limit for evaluation of Y(f) depends on the applied inverter and controller technology and has to be selected at least so high that no active behaviour can be expected beyond it.

Hardware-in-the-loop simulations must include different operation points (typically zero power, maximum traction power, and maximum braking power).

No stability study for the full power supply system has to be performed, provided that the vehicle meets the requirements as defined above for inverter vehicles. For vehicles which do not meet these requirements, a full study according to EN 50 388:2005, clause 10 has to be performed by the vehicle manufacturer or by the infrastructure owner on the applicants costs. For vehicles equipped with passive filter, the applicant must show simulations or calculations which confirm that the filters are well damped at frequencies where the filters are capacitive, and that there is no risk for resonances or overvoltages, according to EN 50 388:2005, clause 10.

Tests are to be performed in connection with other tests. The voltage shall be recorded and analyzed with respect to harmonics, see chapter 4.4 Validation and tests. In particular, this is valid for the mixed traffic tests with test runs in areas with heavy other traffic.

4.3.9.4 Documentation

Simulation report, conformity statement, and validation/test report.

Numerical data giving the frequency response Y(f) has to be delivered in a commonly used electronic format (ASCII files, Excel, Matlab), with a maximum resolution of 1/3 Hz from the line frequency up to 1 kHz or up to the sample frequency of the converter control, whatever is the higher frequency. The choice of using the sampling frequency comes from the experience that some vehicles have had problems above the Nyquist frequency.

The circuit diagram and component parameters of the line-side circuits of the vehicle must be included in the report for comparison purposes.

Note that the simulation report must be ready at the time of writing the test plan (see chapter 4.4.4 Requirements prior to testing).

Evaluation of the voltage and the harmonics measured during the tests shall be presented.

4.3.10 P10: Current harmonics

4.3.10.1 Information

These requirements are not a part of EN 50 388: 2005, but due to the high harmonic content in the Norwegian and the Swedish network, which in turn causes high peak value in the line voltage (see section 4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion), these requirements are needed in order not to worsen the situation.

4.3.10.2 Requirements

GENERATED CURRENT HARMONICS

The current harmonics generated by the vehicle are not allowed to exceed the levels in the following table. The individual harmonics are related to the rated current of the vehicle.

Table 5. Limits for individual current harmonics.
Harmonics 3 5 7 9
Current level, % of IN 5% 3% 3% 3%

THDI shall not exceed 8% (0.08), where:

IN = rated current for the vehicle (fundamental, 16 2/3 Hz). n = Varying harmonics, n = 2, 3, 4 …

Even harmonics are implicitly limited by the THDI –value.

Individual inter-harmonics in the current shall not exceed more than 3% of the fundamental rated current. The limits presented above for current harmonics are under investigation and shall be considered as target values. The limits represent the 95%-percentile of the measured line current harmonics.

CONDUCTED CURRENT HARMONICS

The vehicle design must consider the high levels of the line voltage harmonics, meaning that the vehicle must have sufficiently high input impedance not to act as an “interference vacuum-cleaner” or amplifier. This applies to both the passive input impedance (determined mainly by the main transformer and line filters, if any), and the active input impedance below 90 Hz in case harmonic anti-control is used, e.g., in order to stabilize the DC link voltage.

The harmonic current limits of table 5 above apply for harmonic voltage distortion levels up to the 90% percentile of table 4 in section 4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion.

4.3.10.3 Verification

Verification of the requirement shall be made by test measurements. Tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.10.4 Documentation

The conformity statement and the results of the tests shall be presented in a technical report.

4.3.11 P11: Relay protection and coordination

4.3.11.1 Information

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

All current values in this clause refer to the sub-transient short circuit currents. The highest short circuit current in the railway power supply system is 25 kA. NORWAY:

Feeding stations and switching posts are normally equipped with the following relay protection:

  • Distance protection as normal primary protection at branches:
    • Zone 1 covers normally 60-85% of line and has a disconnect time less than 0.15 s
    • Zone 2 covers the whole line and 20 % or more of adjacent lines with disconnect time usually less than 0.3 s. Zone 2 is triggered by a current step of 200 A or a voltage step of 2 kV during 0.2 s.
  • Time delayed over current protection covering approx. 50% of the line. Used as primary protection covering the whole line at branches without distance protection (often short, single fed switching yards). Approximate setting: 0.8-1.6 kA, delay time 0.2-3 s (inverse or constant).
  • High speed over current protection at some branches.
  • Under voltage protection of busbar, usually trigged by voltages less than 9 kV in 0.5 s. On a few branches additional under voltage protection usually triggered by voltages less than 10 kV in 2.0 s
  • Thermal protection of the overhead contact wire at some high loaded branches/lines.
  • Testing resistor (640 Ohm) at most branches
    • Before a line/branch is activated, the voltage is applied via the testing resistor in order to detect faults or short circuits. If the line impedance is sufficiently high, the branch circuit breaker will be switched on. In a few stations the line is tested with an electronic test circuit
  • Automatic circuit breaker re-closing at most branches, if the circuit breaker has tripped due to distance, over current, 100 Hz and under voltage protection. Re-closing is executed 5 s after the breaker has tripped first time, and then 30 s and 180 s, respectively, after the previous re-closing attempt has ended. If the last attempt fails, the breaker is blocked and must manually be closed from the dispatch centre.
  • In general, the 100 Hz protection in the static converter stations orders disconnection if the current harmonics around 100 Hz exceed given levels.

Coupling posts are equipped with the following relay protection:

  • Under voltage protection disconnecting if the voltage is below approx. 6 kV for more than 20 s.
  • Combined under voltage and over current protection disconnecting if the voltage is below approx. 10 kV and the current is above 300 A for 0.4 s.

SWEDEN:

The relay protection for the lines and the busbar at converter stations and switching posts is normally of the following types: Protection of the 15 kV lines:

  • High speed over current protection (< 50 ms for static and < 10 ms for numerical relays): Normal setting for the current is 1.5-2.0 kA.
  • Two-step distance protections in combination with a current/voltage jump relay. The second step is activated by the current/voltage jump relay, set at 175 - 450 A and 2 kV. The first step covers 65 - 85% of the line, step two covers 100 % of the first line and from 30 % up to 50 % of the next line.
  • Time over current protection with an approximate setting of: 0.8-1.2 kA, delay time 1-3 s (inverse or constant).
  • Thermal protection against prolonged overloading of the contact line.
  • Normally each line has a test resistor of 640 Ω. Before the circuit breaker for a line is closed, a voltage is applied to the line via this test resistor, and if the impedance is sufficiently high the circuit breaker closes.
  • Automatic circuit breaker re-closing exists on most lines, operating if the circuit breaker has tripped due to distance or over current protection. Re-closing is executed 5 s after the breaker has tripped the first time, and then again 60 s after the previous re-closing attempt has failed and is terminated. If the last attempt fails, the breaker is blocked and must manually be closed from the dispatch centre.

Protection of the 15 kV busbar:

  • Under voltage protection with a normal setting of 9 kV, 0.5 s.

The disconnection time for a fault with a high current (> 1.5 kA) is less than 150 ms.

4.3.11.2 Requirements

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 11.

Note that in case the breaker capacity is higher than the highest short circuit current in the power supply system, the breaker shall open immediately for all faults in the vehicle. When applying this rule, it must be considered if the vehicle is also operating in other countries where higher short circuit currents may occur. In that case the breaker shall be staged for faults on the primary side of the transformer.

4.3.11.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Functional description.

4.3.11.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Technical report and conformity statement.

4.3.12 P12: AC inrush currents

4.3.12.1 Information

NOTE: This is not the same requirement and test that is specified for DC inrush current for Sweden in section 3.2.1 S1: DC track circuits. The DC inrush current requirement is only of interest in Sweden due to the DC track signalling circuits, whereas the AC inrush current requirements and tests are of interest in both countries due to the relay protection. One of the

relay protection systems commonly used in both Norway and Sweden is over current relays with different tripping time (see chapter 4.3.11 P11: Relay protection and coordination). These over current protections disconnect the line if the inrush currents exceed the trip levels and/or trip times.

4.3.12.2 Requirements

Maximum magnitude of the inrush current from the transformer or any other equipment in the vehicle shall not exceed 2.0 kA (peak value) during the two first periods, 120 ms, after breaker closure. This value is valid when connecting the vehicle to a stiff 16.5 kV, 16.7 Hz voltage source. The requirements are valid for a complete traction unit which can be more than one vehicle.

When several vehicles are connected (multiple unit operation) to the 15 kV system, it is desired that breaker operations on the vehicles are unsynchronized, i.e. that there are different delays imposed on each vehicle.

4.3.12.3 Verification

Verification shall be made by calculations and tests. The tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.12.4 Documentation

Technical report with conformity statement and test results.


4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking

4.3.13.1 Information

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Normally, most of the regenerative power from rolling stock will be consumed by other trains. Temporary sectioning of the network may to a large extent reduce, or completely disable, the single-phase network’s ability to absorb regenerative power feedback.

Regenerative power feedback may in some sections be limited even further as mentioned below, due to special reasons. All rotary converters and some static converters can feed power back to the 3-phase network. Some static converter stations cannot receive power feedback from the single-phase network at all. In these stations the energy may be “pushed” forward by shifting the phase angle of the output voltage.

NORWAY:

Due to the contact line’s thermal capacity, and in order to enable the protection for outgoing lines to detect a short circuit while at the same time rolling stock feeds back regenerative power, the power supply is divided into classes of allowable regenerative current. These classes and where they apply is given in register of infrastructure (Network Statement).

Norwegian infrastructure is not equipped for automatic power selection. An on board installed technical current or power selector which limit the current or power demand of the train to the given electrical capacity of the line is not required. In case such a selector is not installed, the maximum current limiting must be carried out manually by the driver.

4.3.13.2 Requirements
Figure 11. Suggested cos(φ)-control in regenerative braking.
Figure 12. Suggested power limitation and cos(φ)-control in regenerative braking.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Requirements for regenerative braking in EN 50 388:2005, clause 12 must be fulfilled. Furthermore, it is not allowed to regenerate power to a neutral section. Feedback of regenerative braking power should be brought to zero when entering such a section.

Vehicles must not continue to feed back power if the requirements for maximum voltage limit given in section 4.3.1 in this document are exceeded, but there is no requirement for the durations of unspecified period described in EN 50 163:2004, table 1, subsection f) given for regenerative power feedback.

NORWAY:

A train must not feed back more regenerative power than the limit for the section on which the train is currently operating.

If a system, which automatically stops feeding back power from the train when a short-circuit occurs in the actual section, can be documented to have adequate performance, then the restrictions due to the protection’s ability to detect short circuits can be lifted.

SWEDEN:

New rolling stock must not cause the line voltage locally at any existing vehicle to increase above 17.5 kV to any greater extent (amplitude and time duration limited to approximately 5 seconds) than what is already seen in the existing system. A compatibility study according to EN 50 388 must be made, showing that this requirement is met.

A train may continuously generate up to 17.5 kV during regenerative braking.

NOTE: There are several possible technical solutions in order to meet this requirement. One possible solution is to limit the line voltage at the new rolling stock to 17.5 kV. Another solution is a control of cos(φ) during regeneration (please also refer to section 4.3.5 P5: Power Factor), as suggested by the figures 11 (red crossed area) and 12.

4.3.13.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Testing of regenerative braking must be carried out in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, section 13 and 14.

Verification that the vehicle does not regenerate power to a neutral section or to a contact line that is disconnected from the power supply system, or to a short circuit, shall be based on conformity statements and functional descriptions. No practical tests on sites in Norway and Sweden are required.

Verification of the voltage limiting function shall be made by test measurements. The tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

SWEDEN:

Verification that the vehicle does not cause the line voltage locally at any existing vehicle to increase above 17.5 kV to any greater extent than what is already seen in the existing system, may be by means of calculations presented in a separate report.

4.3.13.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Conformity statement. Tests shall be documented in test reports with diagrams presenting the results. Functional descriptions must be presented, showing how the vehicle/s act when entering a neutral section or when a short circuit occurs, both close to the vehicle and at a far distance.

4.3.14 P14: Train pre-heating systems

4.3.14.1 Information

NORWAY:

Jernbaneverket offers three different systems for connecting rolling stock to stationary pre-heating facilities. For more information about the systems and geographic location of connection points see Network Statement, item 5.3.3.1. The following systems exist in Norway (but with different and limited extension):

  • 1000 V, 50 Hz
  • 1000 V, 16.7 Hz
  • 3 x 400 V, 50 Hz (up till now only on non-electrified lines)

Maximum power output per pre-heat post:

For 1000 V post: 100 - 630 A (large variations, local limits are described in the Network statement). For 400 V post: 63 A.

The 50 Hz facilities are from local distribution grid. Variation in output voltage must be expected to be according to the allowed medium-voltage supply characteristics in EN 50160. The 16.7 Hz facilities are supplied from the overhead contact line via a step-down transformer with ratios from 15:1 kV to 16.5:1 kV and without automatic tap-changing. Variation in output voltage must be expected according to the transformer ratios and the given line voltage variation in 4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels.

SWEDEN:

The following system exists in Sweden:

1000 V, 16.7 Hz

These facilities are supplied from the overhead contact line via a step-down transformer with ratios from 15:1 kV to 16.5:1 kV and without automatic tap-changing. Variation in output voltage must be expected according to the transformer ratios and the given line voltage variation in 4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels.

4.3.14.2 Requirements

The train pre-heating systems must meet all of the following requirements.

For all systems the following apply: Automatic or technical interlocking devises in the train, or manual operating routines are required in order to prevent interconnecting the power supply from stationary pre-heat posts, other potential external power supplies, or supply through the train pantograph.

NORWAY:

For 1000 V systems the connection plug must be designed in accordance with UIC 552.

For 400 V systems the contact type must be a circular pin plug 436-6 with pilot contact (L1-L2-L3-N-PE-pilot). Connections in accordance with UIC 554-1, plate IV.

SWEDEN:

The design of the connection to the pre-heating installation must be in accordance with UIC 550 and UIC 552.

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

To ensureselectivity, the first peak of the inrush current, when connecting the vehicle to a pre-heating installation, must not exceed 2.0 kA (peak) at 1000V, 16.7 Hz.

4.3.14.3 Verification

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Verifications shall be made by technical and functional descriptions.

Verifications shall also be made by tests. The tests are specified in chapter 4.4.

4.3.14.4 Documentation

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Conformity statement, and a technical report which shall include the test results.

4.3.15 P15: Energy measurements

4.3.15.1 Information

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Both Jernbaneverket and Banverket are members of European Railway Energy Settlement System (ERESS). This system allows automatic transfer of data such as time and date, energy demand and GPS-position from the train energy measurement system.

4.3.15.2 Requirements

NORWAY:

Requirement P15 is expired and replaced be an updated requirement in onother Bane NOR document.

4.3.15.3 Verification

NORWAY:

See updated requirement.

4.3.15.4 Documentation

NORWAY:

See updated requirement.

4.3.16 P16: Other electrical equipment

4.3.16.1 Information

NORWAY:

No specific information.

SWEDEN:

This can refer to heating of driver cabins in some cases, but not whole trains.

4.3.16.2 Requirements

NORWAY:

No specific requirements.

SWEDEN:

If vehicles have equipment that demands 400/230 V, 50 or 16,7 Hz power supply from local main supply or auxiliary systems the installation must be in accordance with UIC 554 in applicable parts. Note that these types of connections are very rare in Sweden and exist foremost on non-electrified lines.

4.3.16.3 Verification

NORWAY:

No specific verification.

SWEDEN:

Technical description.

4.3.16.4 Documentation

NORWAY:

No specific documentation.

SWEDEN:

Technical report.

4.3.17 P17: Ice on the overhead line

4.3.17.1 Information

At conditions with ice or frost on the overhead line, arcs between contact wire and pantograph can result in DC components in the traction current. Measurements on existing vehicles have shown that DC currents can flow through the primary of the main transformer of the locomotive or traction unit, with levels exceeding 40 A continuously for up to 60 seconds, and with short-time (a few seconds) levels up to 70 A.

4.3.17.2 Requirements

No specific requirements.

4.3.17.3 Verification

No specific verification.

4.3.17.4 Documentation

No specific documentation.

4.4 Validation and tests

4.4.1 Requirements prior to tests

NORWAY AND SWEDEN:

Before test runs and/or demonstrations are allowed on the railway lines in Norway or Sweden, some documentation is required. In addition to the documentation mentioned later in this chapter, which refers to electrical requirements and how to perform tests, there are some other pre-requirements to be met. These pre-requirements and documentation concern topics like:

  • train control (ATC)
  • profile
  • running dynamics
  • axle loads
  • current collector
  • etc.

These pre-requirements are not covered in this document and it is the responsibility of the applicant for the acceptance to contact Jernbaneverket and/or Banverket to get the complete information regarding these requirements. (Note: it is possible to test or demonstrate a vehicle without ATC by connecting the vehicle under test to an accepted vehicle. Special provisions must however be made so that correct test conditions are met, i.e. the accepted extra vehicle must not influence the test results.)

NORWAY:

The requirements regarding other topics than electric compatibility captured in this document is to be clarified as a part of the overall compatibility process which is described in JD 590 chapter 1.

4.4.1.1 Interference currents

Documentation which contains estimations, calculations, or previous measurements of interference currents according to the requirements S1-S6 is required. If such documentation cannot be made available, a preliminary test must be performed on a closed track before any other tests are performed. See also the requirements in section 3.2.1 to 3.2.6.

4.4.1.2 Radiated EMI (S7, part of T6)

EMC test regarding radiated emission shall be performed by the manufacturer (or applicant) at the factory before any tests on railway lines in Norway or Sweden. See section Feil! Fant ikke referansekilden., Feil! Fant ikke referansekilden..

4.4.1.3 Simulations of dynamic vehicle behaviour

Testing of new vehicles on the railway infrastructure is very costly and shall be kept to a minimum for the benefit of all involved parties in long term. In order to reduce the risk of a failure of some tests as well as to document vehicle characteristics which can not be tested directly, simulations shall be performed by the vehicle manufacturer. It is recommended that the simulation results are presented to and discussed with Jernbaneverket and/or Banverket prior to the first tests with the new vehicle.

This concerns low frequency power oscillations (see 4.3.8) and electrical resonance stability (see 4.3.9) and is based on EN 50388:2005, clause 10, steps 1 to 11 of the compatibility study.

4.4.1.4 Current or power control at low voltage

Documentation of current limitation as function of voltage is required.

4.4.1.5 Regenerative braking

Documentation of the voltage limitation function when using regenerative brake is required.

4.4.1.6 Test plan

A test plan shall be presented to Jernbaneverket and/or Banverket before any measurements or tests are carried out. The test plan shall contain a description on how the tests are performed (i.e. what lines shall be used, closed track or mixed traffic and so on) and on the vehicle constellation (load, weight and so on). Furthermore, the test plan shall include a description of the instrumentation and measurement methods that will be used and how the instrumentation is calibrated. This information shall also be included in the test reports.

4.4.2 Coordination with tests regarding signalling systems and telecommunication

The tests specified below can to a wide extent be coordinated with the tests regarding signalling systems and telecommunication (S-requirements).

4.4.3 General test plan

Table 6 below defines the test categories T1-T7, and outlines the minimum number of successful tests specifically addressing the requirements P1-P13.

Table 6. Test categories and general test plan.
Cat. Condition Scope and train operation
T1 Closed track, rotating converters 4 ABAB sequences and 2 ARO-sequences in each end of the line, all in each train configuration.

(Plus additional tests for S-requirements; the data from these tests must be analyzed also for all relevant P-requirements).

T2 Closed track, static converters 4 ABAB sequences and 2 ARO-sequences in each end of the line, all in each train configuration.

6 voltage jump tests. (Plus additional tests for S-requirements; the data from these tests must be analyzed also for all relevant P-requirements).

T3 Mixed traffic 8 hours of effective operation on the specified lines. All data must be analyzed for all relevant P- and S-requirements.
T4 Transformer inrush (peak AC) Minimum 25 successful inrush events
T5 Transformer inrush (DC, S only) N/A (S-requirement only)
T6 Other tests (train heating system) Minimum 25 successful inrush events
T7 Non-test approval N/A

The Tests T1, T2, T4, and T6 can be performed in either country. The tests T3 must be performed in the country/countries where the vehicle is going to operate.

4.4.4 Test details

4.4.4.1 Test sites

The following test sites are suggested:

Table 7. Suggested test sites.
Cat. Norway Sweden
T1 Hønefoss-Nesbyen on the Bergen line. Gemla-Lessebo on the Alvesta-Kalmar line.
T2 Lillestrøm-Gardermoen, Gardermoen Airport line. Eskilstuna-Nykvarn on the Eskilstuna-Södertälje line.
T3 Oslo area. Borlänge area (Borlänge-Krylbo, Borlänge-Ludvika).
T4 Oslo S Ockelbo.
T5 N/A (S-requirement)
T6 Any location with posts for train heating supply.
T7 N/A
4.4.4.2 Power supply configurations
Figure 13: Supply conditions for T1 tests, P-requirements.
Figure 14: Supply conditions for T2 tests, P-requirements.

CATEGORY T1: CLOSED TRACK, ROTATING CONVERTERS

The test line must be single-end supplied from one rotating converter in island operation. There must be no other trains activated or in operation on the test line. It is recommended that the test permissions allow for operation without ATC.

For an approval in Norway, measurements in the feeding converter station are required in addition to the measurements on vehicle. The activities in the converter station must be carried out according to Jernbaneverkets instructions.

CATEGORY T2: CLOSED TRACK, STATIC CONVERTERS

The test line must be single-end supplied from one or two static converters. Since these converters are not designed for island operation, the remaining network must be connected in the supply end. There must be no other trains activated or in operation on the test line. It is recommended that the test permissions allow for operation without ATC.

CATEGORY T3: MIXED TRAFFIC

The mixed traffic tests must be performed by running in timetable-like operation in areas with heavy traffic as well as low traffic, and lines which are fed from rotary as well as static converters. For Sweden, these trips shall also include driving on lines fed by the 132 kV system.

CATEGORY T4: TRANSFORMER INRUSH

The supply must be the strongest possible. Please refer to the detailed description of these tests in section 4.4.4.9 below.

4.4.4.3 Adhesion conditions

The tests must be performed at adhesion conditions that are good enough to allow the vehicle to reach full power, but also poor enough to cause frequent wheel-slip. Track-watering equipment must be used if the tests are performed at so good natural adhesion conditions that wheel-slip is not seen, and sand must be used in case the natural adhesion is very low such that full power is not reached.

4.4.4.4 Train configuration

All tests shall be performed with one vehicle alone, and with the maximum configuration of vehicles (i.e. multiple units) for which the approval must be valid.

4.4.4.5 Train load, tests T1-T3

Locomotives must be loaded by a reasonably heavy train (≈2 t per kN max. tractive effort, or  100 t per MW max. power, whichever is the greater) during all tests T1 and T3. During tests T2, a somewhat lighter load may be used (some 25% of the values above).

4.4.4.6 Train operation – ABAB and ARO sequences
Figure 15. ABAB (Acceleration-Brake-Acceleration-Brake) operation sequence.
Figure 16. ARO (Acceleration-RollOut) operation sequence.

The train must be operated according to the ABAB and ARO speed profiles shown in figure 15 and 16 below, during the tests specifically addressing the P-requirements.

All vehicles must perform tests up to their speed limit during test category T2. During the test categories T1 and T3, the maximum speed is typically given by the speed limit of the line (or, in the case of locomotives, by the load wagons), meaning that the sequences must be terminated at a lower speed.

4.4.4.7 Voltage jump tests (part of T2)
Figure 17: Voltage jump test

Tests of voltage jumps shall be performed on a weak double end fed line where one of the feedings shall be switched on and off when the vehicle is fairly close to that station.

The train is accelerated with maximum tractive effort. When the maximum power is reached, the feeding condition is switched. A minimum of 3 successful tests with positive voltage jump (double feeding switched on) and 3 tests with negative voltage jump (double feeding switched off) must be performed.

4.4.4.8 Transformer inrush (AC) test (T4)

NOTE: This is not the same test that is specified for DC inrush current for Sweden in chapter 3.2.1 S1: DC track circuits. The tests shall be performed at a location where the short-circuit current is greater than 20 kA, i.e. Ik > 20 kA. In Sweden this means tests directly outside Ockelbo converter station with connection to the 132 kV system, and the maximum number of converters running in Ockelbo, Borlänge, Häggvik and Ånge. In Norway this means tests at Oslo S with all converter unites in the surrounding stations running (Asker, Alnabru, Lillestrøm, Jessheim, Holmlia and Smørbekk).

The tests shall be performed with the maximum configuration of the vehicle (i.e. maximal number of units in multiple operation for which the approval must be valid). At least 10 trials of breaker closures must be performed if the breaker closure is synchronized to a voltage zero crossing. If the breaker closure is not synchronized to the voltage zero crossing, at least 25 trials of breaker closures shall be performed. All trials must be within limits for acceptance.

The current shall be recorded, and the whole course of the inrush current (instantaneous values) for each trial shall be presented after the tests.

4.4.4.9 Train heating systems tests (T6)

These tests refer to the requirement regarding inrush currents in chapter 0,P14: Train pre-heating systems. Verifications shall be made by tests of at least 25 trials of inrush current tests, apart from the description mentioned in clause 0, when the vehicle is connected to a heating post. No specific test site is specified.

The current shall be recorded and the whole course of the inrush current (instantaneous values) for each trial shall be presented after the tests.

4.4.5 Measurement instrumentation and methods

The verification of the requirements shall primarily be made by measurements, if not stated otherwise.

4.4.5.1 Measurement instrumentation – P-requirements
Figure 18: Transducer position and recommended measuring equipment.

All measurements shall be performed with adequate voltage and current transducers (transformers and/or active transducers such as Rogowski coils and Hall transducers.

Sampling instruments as shown in figure 18 are recommended. For measurements of high frequency phenomena, such as the Norwegian signalling circuit interference, a sampling frequency of approximately 50 kHz is recommended together with an anti-aliasing filter with a cut of frequency of approximately 20 kHz.

It is required that adequate anti-aliasing filters are used. The cut-off frequency of the anti-alias filter for the current measurement must be higher than the highest frequency of interest, i.e., higher than 17 kHz for Norway (FTGS track circuits) and higher than 6 kHz for Sweden (psophometric currents). The sampling frequency must be well above two times these values. It is recommended that all raw data be streamed directly to a storage device (DAT recorder, hard-disk, or similar) for later post-processing and analysis, in addition to the on-line supervision. For the signal processing see chapter 4.4.5.2 below.

Figure 18 below shows an example of the recommended principle of data recording and analysis, and how to install Hall transducers to measure the DC-current. It is recommended that the speed signal be taken from the vehicle control rather than via GPS, since the test lines comprise numerous tunnels without GPS coverage.

The tolerance of the overall signal chain including transducers, signal conditioners, A/D converters, and data analysis, must be determined before the tests. A measurement error of less than ±1% at the fundamental, and less than ±5% of any of the stated interference requirements, is expected.

Also the tolerance of the phase angle of the voltage and current fundamentals must be determined.

The principles of the data analysis, as well as the tolerances, must be described and presented before the tests, as a part of the test plan for the accepting authority.

4.4.5.2 Data analysis – general P-requirements
Figure 19: Suggested post-processing of the recorded data.

The recorded data must be processed and analysed in accordance with the interference requirements P1, P3, P5-P10, and P13. The result plots from the analysis (one or more plots per individual LOOP, ABAB, or ARO sequence) must present the following quantities, all versus time:

  • RMS line current (60 ms RMS)
  • RMS line voltage (60 ms RMS)
  • Crest line voltage
  • Train speed
  • Active and reactive power (120 ms and 1.2 s), and cos(φ) and tan(φ) (1.2 s)
  • 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th line voltage harmonics
  • 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th current harmonics, and the current THD

In addition, the following information must be given in each plot:

  • Test date
  • Line section
  • Test ID (reference to the test log)
  • Status of the vehicle (software revision etc.)
  • Distance covered during the test sequence
  • 95%-percentiles of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th current harmonic, as well as the current THD

The summary report must present the following plots:

  • Active power versus RMS line voltage (1.2 s), including the limit curves according to EN 50 388 section 7.2, figure 1.
  • Tan(φ) versus RMS line voltage (1.2 s)
  • Reactive versus active power, including the limit curves according to figure 8 in section 4.3.5 P5: Power factor.

Figure 19 below shows the suggested analysis method, based on a sampling frequency of the raw data of 50 kHz.

The comparably short RMS times of 60 ms are required in order not to mask out any low-frequency oscillations.

For FFT analysis, Hanning windows are recommended.

Other types of measurement and evaluation methods, than the recommendations above, can be discussed, but the applicant must then show how these measurements will be carried out and what accuracy will be achieved.

4.4.5.3 Data analysis – substation measurements (Norway only)

The recorded data from both the train and the substation must be processed and analysed in accordance with the requirement P8. The result plots from the analysis (one per individual LOOP, ABAB, or ARO sequence) must present time-aligned train and substation data in the same plots, all versus time:

  • RMS line current, train and substation (60 ms RMS)
  • RMS line voltage, train and substation (60 ms RMS)
  • Train speed
  • 3-phase and 1-phase active substation power (120 ms)
  • Active and reactive train power (120 ms)

In addition, the following information must be given in each plot:

  • Test date
  • Line section
  • Test ID (reference to the test log)
  • Status of the vehicle (software revision etc.)
  • Distance covered during the test sequence
4.4.5.4 Data analysis – P12- and P14-requirements

The current and voltage waveforms around each inrush event must be plotted, and the peak current value must be noted. Each plot must have information about the test date, the exact location of the test, and the data recording ID(s). ===Documentation

4.4.6 General

All documentation shall be in English language. The documentation shall contain:

  • Technical functional descriptions, when required
  • Measuring equipment
  • Accuracy
  • Calibration
  • Test set up (trains other locos and so on)
  • Software version on vehicle
  • Time and date for the tests
  • Track/line sections and distance from start of line for the presented registrations
  • Information about number of repetitions and approximate location for the various tests. Based on this, the applicant must evaluate whether the results can be considered as typical and representative for the later use of the rolling stock, or if special conditions not included in the tests may potentially lead to future problems.
  • Discussion of the results and evaluation and a conclusion whether each requirement is fulfilled or not, i.e. a confirmative statement for each requirement.
  • A summary report (or a summary as a part of the whole report) where the test results are summarized with remarks and observations, especially incompatibilities and exceedances of limits.

Furthermore, a general technical description containing a principle block diagram of the traction circuits of the vehicle is required.

4.4.7 Input data for simulations

In order to develop traction power system for future, investigate power systems problems and do energy demand and loss calculations some key information about vehicles are needed. The following information must be prepared and submitted to Jernbaneverket and/or Banverket as input to the traction power supply computer program:

4.5.2.1 Motor type (asynchronous motor or direct-current motor)
4.5.2.2 Dynamic mass [metric tons] of vehicle including load
4.5.2.3 Mass [metric tons] of vehicle including load
4.5.2.4 Adhesion mass [metric tons] of vehicle
4.5.2.5 Maximum speed [km/h] for vehicle
4.5.2.6 Length [m] of vehicle
4.5.2.7 Curve resistance CR0 [kNm/tons] and CR1 [m] as function of curve radius [m] as in formula (curve resistance)=CR0/((curve radius)-CR1)·MASS
4.5.2.8 Minimum allowed curve radius [m] for the vehicle
4.5.2.9 Running resistance RRA [kN], RRB [kN/(km/h)] and RRC [kN/(km/h)2] on straight track as function of speed [km/h] in the formula (running resistance)=RRA+RRB·v+RRC·v2
4.5.2.10 Adhesion coefficients ADH1 [km/h] and ADH2 [km/h] in adhesion formula (adhesion)=ADHCOEFF+ADH1/(speed+ADH2). ADHCOEFF is track dependent and in this simulations presumed to be 0.161
4.5.2.11 Nominal voltage [kV] at current collector
4.5.2.12 Active power consumption [MW] for auxiliary power, train heating and air condition which is taken directly from the main transformer (no load losses not included)
4.5.2.13 Power factor at zero speed for auxiliary power, train heating and air condition which is taken directly from the main transformer
4.5.2.14 Losses [MW] for the tractive equipment from current collector to wheel at no load, for instance the no load losses of the main transformer
4.5.2.15 Maximum and continuous curve for tractive and electric braking effort [kN] as function of speed [km/h]
4.5.2.16 Desired acceleration and retardation [m/s2] as function of speed [km/h]
4.5.2.17 Maximum tractive effort [kN] at wheels at motoring and maximum electrical braking effort [kN] at wheels as function of speed [km/h]
4.5.2.18 Maximum active power consumption and feedback [MW] at current collector as function of speed [km/h].
4.5.2.19 Efficiency [%] for maximum tractive effort from current collector to wheel at maximum tractive effort as function of speed [km/h]. Auxiliary power not included
4.5.2.20 Maximum power consumption and regeneration [MW] as function of contact line voltage [kV]. Power consumption for passenger coaches if the vehicle is a locomotive are to be added.
4.5.2.21 Maximum tractive effort [kN] as function of contact line voltage [kV]
4.5.2.22 Main circuit schematics
4.5.2.23 Filter configuration and component values/data including main transformer
4.5.2.24 Admittance frequency response including control system

Additional data required for phase angle controlled (thyristor) vehicles:

4.5.2.30 Number of converter bridges in series with one motor
4.5.2.31 Maximum allowed voltage between the motor’s terminals under the worst conditions in [%]
4.5.2.32 First limitation for the motors; current or flux
4.5.2.33 Power factor of the vehicle (thyristor brigdes) when the control is with fully advanced angle

Additional data required for inverter vehicles:

4.5.2.40 Power angle alternative power factor for power consumption and regeneration as function of contact line voltage [kV]
4.5.2.41 Active power consumption [MW] for auxiliary power, train heating and air condition which is taken from the converter bridge
4.5.2.42 Power factor at zero speed for auxiliary power, train heating and air condition which is taken from the converter bridge

All data that describe curves, such as the tractive effort versus speed, must be given as Excel tables.

Power system simulation software SIMPOW® and the additional module TRACFEED® Simulation are used.

5 Appendices