Rolling stock/Supplementary information and regulations/Appendix/Requirements on rolling stock in Norway and Sweden regarding EMC with the electrical infrastructure and coordination with the power supply and other vehicles
- 1 Executive Summary
- 2 Introduction
- 2.1 Abstract
- 2.2 About this document
- 2.3 Abbreviations and Definitions
- 2.4 Scope
- 2.5 General information about the infrastructure
- 2.6 Revision history
- 3 Signalling Systems and Telecommunication
- 4 Power Supply
- 4.1 References
- 4.2 Safety with respect to electricity
- 4.3 Compatibility requirements
- 4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels
- 4.3.2 P2: Line voltage frequency
- 4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion
- 4.3.4 P4: Neutral sections
- 4.3.5 P5: Power factor
- 4.3.6 P6: Maximum current limitation
- 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low voltage
- 4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations
- 4.3.9 P9: Electrical resonance stability
- 4.3.10 P10: Current harmonics
- 4.3.11 P11: Relay protection and coordination
- 4.3.12 P12: AC inrush currents
- 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking
- 4.3.14 P14: Train pre-heating systems
- 4.3.15 P15: Energy measurements
- 4.3.16 P16: Other electrical equipment
- 4.3.17 P17: Ice on the overhead line
- 4.4 Validation and tests
- 4.4.1 Requirements prior to tests
- 4.4.2 Coordination with tests regarding signalling systems and telecommunication
- 4.4.3 General test plan
- 4.4.4 Test details
- 220.127.116.11 Test sites
- 18.104.22.168 Power supply configurations
- 22.214.171.124 Adhesion conditions
- 126.96.36.199 Train configuration
- 188.8.131.52 Train load, tests T1-T3
- 184.108.40.206 Train operation – ABAB and ARO sequences
- 220.127.116.11 Voltage jump tests (part of T2)
- 18.104.22.168 Transformer inrush (AC) test (T4)
- 22.214.171.124 Train heating systems tests (T6)
- 4.4.5 Measurement instrumentation and methods
- 4.4.6 General
- 4.4.7 Input data for simulations
- 5 Appendices
1 Executive Summary
The international standards EN 50 121, EN 50 163, EN 50 238, EN 50 388, and others, define the framework for the electrical compatibility between the rolling stock and the infrastructure systems on electrified railways. However, since the infrastructure systems for historical reasons are not equal in all countries, each national rail administration must define the detailed application of the standards in that country, and specify additional requirements in fields that are not covered by the standards. The present document defines the details of the electrical railway infrastructure in Norway and Sweden, and specifies the electrical compatibility requirements for the rolling stock. In general, these requirements are in accordance with the relevant standards, but certain technical differences exist, also compared to the systems in the other 16.7 Hz countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
1.1 General Characteristics
The following is a prioritized list of the problems and general system characteristics that have typically caused train suppliers the greatest difficulties when introducing a new vehicle in the Norwegian and/or Swedish railway network:
- Low frequency power oscillations, when supplied from rotating converters
- High levels of line voltage distortion, in particular the 3rd and 5th voltage harmonics, and high crest voltages
- Regenerative braking and line voltage limitation
- Power factor control for improvement of the power capacity of weak supply lines
- The weak power supply in general, characterized by long feeding distances, single-track lines, small rotating as well as static 50 Hz to 16 2/3 Hz converter stations, and a high number of phase-angle controlled vehicles
1.2 Technical Requirements
1.2.1 Signal interference and telecommunication
|Ref.||System||Requirement / interference limit||Details|
|S1||DC (S only)||25 A, and limits for the DC component at transformer inrush.||3.2.1|
|S2||95 Hz and 105 Hz (N only)||1.00 A. Monitoring required.||3.2.2|
|S3||TI21 track circuits (N only)
16 bands 1532 Hz to 2610 Hz
|S4||FTGS track circuits (N only) 4 bands
4.75 kHz to 6.25 kHz 8 bands 9.5 kHz to 16.5 kHz
|S5||Psophometric currents||1.50 A||3.2.5|
|S6||Broad-band (N only) TBD-7 kHz 7-9 kHz > 9 kHz||1.00 A
0.50 A 0.33 A
|S7||Radiated interference||According to EN 50 121-3-1||3.2.7|
|S8||Outside antennas||According to EN and BVS standards.||3.2.8|
|S9||Resistance between wheelsets||< 0.1 Ω.||3.2.9|
1.2.2 Power supply compatibility
|Ref.||System||Characteristics / requirements||Details|
|P1||Line voltage levels||Umin2 = 10 kV (N only). Voltage jumps may occur at any level between Umin2 and Umax2.||4.3.1|
|P2||Line voltage frequency||The line frequency is 16 2/3 Hz. The railway power supply is synchronized to the 50 Hz mains.||4.3.2|
|P3||Line voltage distortion||The line voltage may be heavily distorted, with up to 5 kV 3rd and 5th harmonic. The crest voltage may exceed 30 kV.||4.3.3|
|P4||Neutral sections||Procedural requirements for the loco driver.||4.3.4|
|P5||Power factor (cos(φ))||The limits for cos(φ) are more strict, compared to EN 50 388. It is generally only possible to regenerate any significant power back into the weak supply system, if a power factor (cos(φ)) control is applied.||4.3.5|
|P6||Maximum line current limitation||Procedural requirements for the loco driver.||4.3.6|
|P7||Current or power control at low line voltage||The power control specified by EN 50 388 is of particular importance due to the weak supply.||4.3.7|
|P8||Low frequency power oscillations||The rotating converters have a poorly damped eigen-frequency at approximately 1.6 Hz. The vehicles must not cause the system to become unstable at any condition.||4.3.8|
|P9||Electrical resonance stability||The input admittance of the vehicles must be passive at all frequencies > 90 Hz.||4.3.9|
|P10||Current harmonics||The limits for the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th current harmonic are 5.0%, 3.0%, 3.0%, and 3.0%, respectively, of the rated current of the vehicle.||4.3.10|
|P11||Relay coordination||In accordance with EN 50 388.||4.3.11|
|P12||Transformer inrush (AC)||The peak inrush current must be < 2.00 kA.||4.3.12|
|P13||Regenerative braking||The vehicle must not cause the line voltage to increase above 17.5 kV (S) or 18.0 kV (N), in regenerative braking.
The vehicle must not cause the voltage locally at other types of vehicles to exceed 17.5 kV to any greater extent than what is seen in the existing system (S only).
|P14||Train heating||In accordance with UIC standards. Inrush tests required.||4.3.14|
|P15||Energy measurement||The ERESS (European Railway Energy Settlement System) system is used.||4.3.15|
|P16||Other electrical equipment||Certain requirements regarding equipment in the driver’s cab.||4.3.16|
|P17||Ice on the overhead line||Significant DC levels have been measured in the primary currents of existing vehicles at OHL ice conditions.||4.3.17|
1.3 Approval Procedures and Tests
The table below outlines the tests that are required for approval. The time needed for the tests depend on a) the number of different operation modes for the vehicle, and b) the free time on the closed track the actual time periods for testing. Most tests must be performed night-time. Experience shows that the categories T1 and T2 require at least two nights each plus transport time, and category T3 1-2 days. In Sweden, category T4+T5 is generally also one day due to the transport. It is expected that category T6 is performed at the suppliers workshop or similar facilities.
It should be noted that these approximate time indications are valid only for a vehicle that is in its final and approvable state, with all software functions and all parameters frozen. Any tests required for the supplier’s own purposes (i.e., to make the vehicle approvable, or for fine-tuning of software) come in additional and up front.
The test categories T1, T2, and T4 may be performed in either country. The mixed traffic tests T3 must be performed in the country/countries where the vehicle will operate. Test T5 must be performed in Sweden. The tests T6 may be performed anywhere with 16 2/3 Hz or 16.7 Hz supply. For an approval in Norway, parallel measurements in the substation must be made during test T1.
Three different acceleration-brake operation sequences are defined: LOOP, ABAB, and ARO (please refer to section 3.3.4 and 4.4.4).
|Cat.||Condition||Suitable test sites||Scope and train operation||Max. line speed|
|T1||Closed track, rotating converters||Alvesta-Emmaboda (S)
|S1-S6 (LOOP) P1, P2, P5-P10, P13 (ABAB, ARO)||< 130 km/h|
|T2||Closed track, static converters||Eskilstuna-Södertälje (S)
Gardermoen line (N)
|S1-S6 (LOOP) P1, P2, P5-P10, P13 (ABAB, ARO, voltage jump)||200 km/h|
|T3||Mixed traffic||Borlänge area (S)
Oslo area (N)
|S1-S6, P1-P3, P5-P10, P13 (Normal operation)|
|T4||Transformer inrush (peak AC)||Ockelbo (S)
Oslo S (N)
|T5||Transformer inrush (DC, S only)||Ockelbo (S)||S1|
|T6||Other tests||Any possible||S7, P14|
|T7||Non-test approval||N/A||S8, S9, P4, P11, P15-P17|
All vehicles must perform tests up to their speed limit during test category T2. Locomotives must be loaded by a reasonably heavy train (≈1-2 t per kN max. tractive effort, or ≈50-100 t per MW max. power, whichever is the greater) during all tests T1 and T3, in order to create realistic acceleration times. During tests T2, a somewhat lighter load may be used (some 25% of the values above).
The supplier must deliver the following documents and other information regarding electrical compatibility. Before testing:
- Clause-by-clause comments to the present specification section 3 and 4, explaining how the technical requirements are met
- Calculated, previously measured, or otherwise estimated signaling interference and psophometric current levels
- The input admittance versus frequency characteristics
- A simulation study regarding low frequency power oscillations
- Descriptions and characteristics of key functions, such as the current or power control at low line voltages, voltage limitation at regenerative braking, cos(φ)-control, etc.
- Calculations regarding the voltages locally at other types of vehicles (S only)
- Design descriptions, main circuit diagrams, data sheets, and other relevant general information
- Test reports and other documentation showing that the vehicle meets the radiated interference requirements of EN 50 121-3
- Documentation that the vehicle is compatible with relevant requirements outside the field of EMC (such as running dynamics, kinematic envelope, braking performance, etc.), to obtain track access for the EMC tests
- A test plan, including descriptions of the instrumentation and data analysis
- The test report, including individual conformity statements for each requirement S1-S9 and P1-P16, and including explanations, references to the detailed test results and printouts, and so on.
- Vehicle data for power system studies
The international standards (EN, IEC, UIC, etc.) that deal with electromagnetic and functional compatibility between railway vehicles and infrastructure, are kept on a quite general level and do not cover all aspects of relevance for each individual country and national rail administration. Typically, different signalling systems are used in different countries, meaning that specific national requirements apply in addition to the common standards.
In Norway and Sweden, not only the signalling systems, but also the power supply differs significantly in comparison with other 16.7 Hz countries.
It is the objective of the present document to compile all relevant information and all requirements that apply to rolling stock used in Norway and Sweden, with respect to compatibility with the electrical infrastructure and other vehicles; i.e. the power supply, existing rolling stock, and infrastructure systems such as track signalling circuits, telecommunication lines, etc.
Jernbaneverket and Banverket are committed to harmonize, as far as possible, not only their technical requirements, but also their requirements regarding approval procedures and tests. It must be noted, however, that due to a number of technical differences between the two countries, this objective cannot be fulfilled for all requirements.
The document is first and foremost based on the standards EN 50 121 part 1 to 5, EN 50 163, EN 50 238 and EN 50 388. This however does not imply that other standards are not valid.
The document concentrates on the special national conditions that are valid for Norway or Sweden, and on topics that are not completely covered by international standards.
The tests described in the document are considered being type tests. This means that if tests are performed in one country, and the test procedures and conditions are representative also for the other country, then the tests, the recorded data, and the results may also be used for the performance evaluation and approval in the other country, even if the limits are different (i.e., tests in one country can provide data also for the other country).
Requirements regarding the mechanical interaction between the pantograph and the contact line are presented in other documents. Furthermore, the requirements on train control systems, such as ATC (= Automatic Train Control) or ERTMS, and interference with train radio and digital systems such as PCM, ISDN, etc., are not included in this document.
2.2 About this document
This document exists in three versions:
- One full version with all sections 1-4. This version is an appendix to Banverkets document BVS 543:19300.
- One version with the sections 1-3 only, and section 4 left unused. This version is an appendix to chapter 5 in Jernbaneverkets document JD 590.
- One version with the sections 1, 2, and 4 only, and section 3 left unused. This version is an appendix to chapter 4 in Jernbaneverkets document JD 590.
Section 1 and 2 of this document are for information only. The formal and valid requirements are given in section 3 and 4. In case of any conflicts, section 3 and 4 take precedence over section 1 and 2.
Section 3 of this document is under the responsibility of the signalling departments at Jernbaneverket and Banverket, while the power supply departments are responsible for section 4.
2.2.4 Coordination between sections and document versions
Certain parts of section 3 and 4 are harmonised and to some extent equal, in particular the requirements regarding testing. These sections are marked with a vertical line in the left margin, as shown here. Any changes to these sections should be coordinated between the signalling and the power supply departments.
2.2.5 National differences
Most requirements apply equally in the two countries. If a requirement is valid solely in one country, this is highlighted with a (Norway only) or (Sweden only) in the level three header for that requirement. Sometimes (e.g., in tables), the shorter (N only) or (S only) is used.
If a requirement is different in the two countries, the following identification is made:
NORWAY AND SWEDEN: Here the parts of the requirement that are common to the two countries are listed. If there are no common requirements, this heading is not used.
NORWAY: Here the requirements that are specific to Norway are listed.
SWEDEN: Here the requirements that are specific to Sweden are listed. The “Sweden only”-section goes on until the next level two, level three, or level four heading, whichever is first.
If a requirement is quantitative, i.e. there is a numerical limit; the accuracy of the limit is given by the number of digits used for the requirement.
2.3 Abbreviations and Definitions
|ABAB||Operation sequence (see 4.4.4)|
|A/D||Analog to digital Conversion|
|ARO||Operation sequence (see 4.4.4)|
|ATC||Automatic train control (called ATP in most countries)|
|ATP||Automatic train protection (called ATC in the Nordic countries)|
|DAT||Digital audio tape|
|FFT||Fast fourier transform|
|FTGS||Type of track Circuit|
|GPS||Global positioning system|
|ID||(Data recording) idendity|
|IIR||Infinite impulse response|
|LOOP||Operation sequence (see 3.3.4)|
|OHL||Overhead (contact) line|
|P1-P17||Compatibility requirements, power supply systems|
|PWM||Pulse width modulation|
|S1-S9||Compatibility requirements, signalling and telecommunication systems|
|TBD||To be defined|
|THD||Total harmonic distortion|
|TI 21||Type of track circuit|
|Bandwidth||In accordance with EN 50 238|
|Bin||Output from a FFT. For example, a FFT with a 1 s window length produces bins at the frequencies 0 Hz (DC), 1 Hz, 2 Hz, . . .|
|Closed track||A line section that is single-end fed, and where no other rail vehicles are activated or in operation|
|Crest voltage||The highest value within one period of the rectified AC voltage. For an ideal sinusoidal voltage, the crest value equals 2 times the RMS value.|
|Fault mode||Degraded vehicle operation mode with one or more subsystems (converter, filter, or similar) cut-out|
|Hanning||Weight function used in combination with the FFT, in order to reduce the effect of transients|
|Normal operation||Vehicle operation mode with all subsystems in intended operation|
|Quasi-stationary||An operation condition where the variables (e.g., RMS voltage or current) vary so slowly that no oscillations or other dynamic effects are triggered|
|Rated current||The line current drawn by the vehicle when operating at full power at the nominal voltage of 15.0 kV|
|RMS||Root-Mean-Square. Please notice that different window lengths are used for different purposes. Generally, the window length is defined as a part of each specific requirement|
|Spectral leakage||The phenomenon that a FFT bin at a certain frequency is “contaminated” with energy originating from signal components at the frequencies of the neighbouring bins. This is an effect of the Hanning window|
|Window||Time duration over which data is analysed, e.g., 60 ms or 1 s|
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
This document is foremost intended for manufacturers or operators who plan:
A) to specify and design new vehicles for operation in Norway and/or Sweden,
B) to modify or rebuild already existing vehicles, or
C) to introduce already existing vehicles that have not previously been operating in Norway or Sweden.
For this purpose, the document provides detailed information about the infrastructure in the two countries. Some of this information is found in connection with the various requirements, but most is given in the attached appendices.
The validity and the application of the requirements in this document are defined in the JD 590 “Characteristics of the infrastructure” chapter 1 section 1.4.2. The document JD 590 is an overall document that describes the infrastructure and the compatibility requirements in Norway for all relevant fields. This present document concerning electric compatibility is hence a part of JD 590 as:
- Signal interference is treated in JD 590 chapter 5 “Signalling and train control systems”
- Telecommunication is treated in JD 590 chapter 6 “Telematic applications”
- Power supply is treated in JD 590 chapter 4 “Energy”
The requirements in this document are valid for:
- First time use of rolling stock or reintroduction of rolling stock that have been considered out of use permanently.
- Rolling stock that is going to be introduced on sections of track not included in current acceptance.
- Changes, both in hardware and software, in rolling stock usage not in compliance with current acceptance.
- Modifications of rolling stock in a way that may affect the compliance with the current acceptance.
This means that the requirements in this document are valid for new electrical traction vehicle and old used vehicles that have not been used in normal operation in Norway or Sweden before. An old vehicle used in Norway is not automatically accepted in Sweden.
The requirements in this document can however be discussed when applied on imported old vehicles, except for the Electrical Safety and requirements regarding signalling circuits and psophometric currents. Requirements regarding signalling circuits are always valid due to safety aspects. Requirements regarding psophometric currents are valid due to effects for third party.
A summary of how and for which rolling stock the requirements are valid is given in the table below:
|Age of the rolling Stock||Category of rolling stock|
|Vehicle design started after 2007-01-01||Vehicles designed before 2007-01-01|
|Vehicles specifically designed for use in Sweden only||All requirements are mandatory.||Already accepted, but any rebuilds or modifications should aim for improving compatibility, and must not reduce compatibility.
For already accepted vehicles, which are to be put in operation on new lines for which the acceptance is not valid, relevant requirements are valid in order to maintain traffic and not to disturb the electrical infrastructure. Relevant requirement are decided on a case-to-case basis.
|Vehicles designed for cross border operation, or for use also in other countries||Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.
Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the requirements are in fundamental conflict with technical requirements from other countries of operation.
|Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.
Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that a rebuild would be in fundamental conflict with technical requirements from other countries of operation, or if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.
|Vehicles originally designed for use in other countries, but imported for future use solely in Sweden||Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.
Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.
|Safety requirements and requirements regarding signalling systems and telecommunications are mandatory.
Non-compatibilities with other requirements might be accepted on a case-to-case basis, but only if it can be demonstrated that the cost of a rebuild is out of proportion.
2.5 General information about the infrastructure
This chapter gives a short introduction to traction power supply systems and track signalling circuits in Norway and Sweden. More specific data about the infrastructure is given as information in APPENDIX 1: Infrastructure data and related information.
In Norway and Sweden the earth resistivity is high in comparison to most of the rest of Europe. This has direct an effect on traction power supply design to avoid disturbing other electrical systems.
In Norway there are 2500 km of electrified railway (2004). The network around the capital Oslo is meshed with both double and single-track lines. Around this centre there are long (> 500 km) single-track lines to other parts of the country. The Norwegian single-phase network is much weaker than in rest of Europe. In some areas the overhead contact line impedance is so large that changes in the power demand from one train may cause voltage variations up to some kilovolts. Both tap changer vehicles, phase controlled vehicles and inverter vehicles with and without filters operate in the network.
The power supply system is of the type 15 kV, 16.7 Hz. It is synchronized with the 50 Hz national grid, i.e. a decentralized system. There is however a small centralized system in the Oslo area consisting of a 55 kV, 16 2/3 Hz single-phase high voltage transmission line fed by one small hydro power station. This system is connected to the contact lines system via 5 substations (which can be located together with rotary converters).
Apart from the small centralized system the power is fed into the traction power supply system by rotary and static (power electronic) converter stations, which convert the energy from 50 Hz, three-phase, to 16 2/3 Hz, single-phase. The number of active converter units in each converter station is adapted to the hourly variation in load demand to allow maintenance and reduce the losses. There is one small hydro power station feeding directly to the overhead contact line system. In normal operation there is often a one-to-one relation between one converter station capacity and load demand form one train. Due to this, low frequency oscillations have often caused severe problems when new vehicles have been introduced.
In normal operation the system is interconnected between the feeding points, but in order to maintain both rail tracks and contact line, sectioning of the system is a common operation mode.
At present, the booster transformer (BT) system, with or without return conductors, is the main feeding system for contact lines in Norway. However, Jernbaneverket plans to build autotransformer (AT) systems for main long distances lines. There are also some series capacitances and one shunt capacitor in the single-phase network in order to reduce inductive contact line impedance, strengthening the voltage and feeding reactive power. The return path for the traction current, regardless of system and apart from return conductors or any extra earth conductors, always comprise both rails, with exception of stations where single rail track signalling circuits occurs.
On electrified lines AC track signalling circuits are used, either double rail or jointless. Most common are 95 and 105 Hz uncoded track signalling circuits. ATC equipment type EBICAB 700 is used on most lines.
In Sweden there are 9 543 km of electrified railway (2004). The railway network is meshed except for the northern part of Sweden. Most of the lines are single track lines except for lines close to Stockholm and the lines between the cities Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
The power supply system is of the type 15 kV, 16.7 Hz. The system is decentralized and synchronized with the 50 Hz national grid. The power is fed into the traction power supply system by converter stations, which convert the energy from 50 Hz, three-phase, to 16 2/3 Hz, single-phase. The converters are of both rotary and static (power electronic) type. The number of active converter units in each converter station is adapted to the load.
In order to reduce the number of converter stations, the contact overhead line system is also fed by a 132 kV system (a two-phase 2 x 66 kV system with directly earthed midpoint) with transformer substations. This system is used from the middle to the northern parts of Sweden. There is no power generation connected directly to the 132 kV system. The system is fed from transformers connected to the 15 kV 16,7 Hz busbars at the converter stations.
The two feeding systems for contact lines in Sweden are; BT-system (booster-transformer system) with one or two return conductors and AT-system (auto-transformer system). Sometimes also a strengthening wire (reinforcement wire, booster wire) occurs. This is more common in the northern part of Sweden, and this type of reinforcement wire is always used on AT-systems. Its objective is to lower the impedance. Sometimes an additional earth wire is used. This type of earth wire is planned to become standard on AT-system lines. A combined AT/BT-system is currently under investigation for introduction (a first small installation is made).
Most of the railway lines are fed from both ends (double sided feeding). Due to the high earth resistivity booster transformer systems with return conductors are mainly used, when not autotransformer systems are implemented, due to EMC requirements. This causes normally higher line impedance than in the central and south of Europe, where the return current can use the rails and earth all the way to the feeding point. The system is relatively weak with rather high voltage drops. Only DC track signalling circuits exist on electrified lines in Sweden. At some non-electrified low traffic lines, radio block systems are used.
Only one of the rails, the S-rail, is used for the return path of the traction current. This is regardless of what type of feeding system that is being used (BT- or AT-system). The other rail is always isolated, I-rail, and is used for the DC track signalling circuits.
ATC equipment type EBICAB 700 is used on most lines.
2.6 Revision history
|05-01-2007:||First version, based on the NIM NES-R10 report with the same title as this document, from 27.11.2006.|
3 Signalling Systems and Telecommunication
(Applies to “Signal interference and telecommunication” only. Please see JD590 chapter 5 and 6)
4 Power Supply
4.1.1 Normative references
|1.1||EN 50 110-1: Operation of electrical installations. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.2||EN 50 121: Railway applications – Electromagnetic compatibility (relevant parts in this context). Part 1: General Part 2: Emission of the whole system to the outside world Part 3-1: Rolling stock – Train and complete vehicle Part 3-2: Rolling stock – Apparatus Part 4: Emission and immunity of the signalling and telecommunication apparatus Part 5: Emission and immunity of fixed power supply installations and apparatus CENELEC, European Standard.||X||X|
|1.3||EN 50 122-1 Railway applications- Fixed installations Part 1: Protective provisions relating to electrical safety and earthing. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.4||EN 50 128: Railway applications – Communications, signalling and processing systems – Sofware for control and protection systems. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.5||EN 50 153: Railway applications – Protective provisions relating to electrical harzards. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.6||EN 50 155: Railway applications Electronic equipment used on rolling stock. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.7||EN 50 163: Railway applications – Supply voltages of traction systems. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.8||EN 50 207: Railway applications – Electronic power converters for rolling stock. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.9||EN 50 215: Railway applications – Test of rolling stock after completion of construction and before entry into service. CENELEC, European Standard.||X||X|
|1.10||EN 50 238: Railway applications – Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.11||EN 50 388: Railway applications – Power supply and rolling stock – Technical criteria for the coordination between power supply (substation) and rolling stock to achieve interoperability. CENELEC, European Standard.||X|
|1.12||UIC 550, 550-1, 550-2, 550-3: Power supply installations for passenger stock.||X|
|1.13||UIC 552: Electrical power supply for trains – Standard technical characteristics of the train line.||X|
|1.14||UIC 554-1: Power supply to electrical equipment on stationary vehicles from local mains system or another source of energy at 220 V or 380 V, 50 Hz.||X|
|1.15||UIC 512: Conditions to be fulfilled in order to avoid difficulties in the operation of track circuits and treadles.||X|
|1.16||BVS 545.43501: Requirements on external antennas for railway vehicles (only published in Swedish: ”Krav på yttre antenner för järnvägsfordon”). Banverket. Only normative for Sweden.||X|
|1.17||ITU-T Recommendation O.41: Psophometer for use on telephone-type circuits.||X|
4.1.2 Other references
|2.1||HS TSI: Directive 96/48/EC – Interoperability of the trans-European high speed rail system, 96/48 ST14EN03 ENE part 2, Draft from 22.06.2006.||X||X|
|2.2||Characteristics of infrastructure. Document JD 590. Jernbaneverket, 01.02.2005.||X||X|
|2.3||Electro-technical requirements on new electrical vehicles regarding compatibility with the power supply system and other electrical vehicles, BKE 00/14, rev. H. Banverket, July 2004.||X||X|
|2.4||Rotating converters BV/JBV: Description of simulation model. emkamatik document 06-0132, ver. 1. Stefan Menth, emkamatik, 18.9.2006.||X|
|2.5||EN 61000-4-7, March 1993. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques. Section 7: General guide on harmonics and interharmonics measurements and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment connected thereto. IEC, CENELEC.||X|
4.2 Safety with respect to electricity
If the vehicle is designed such that it is possible to climb up on the roof of the vehicle without difficulty and without additional means, infrastructure manager will define restrictions for parking the vehicle under live overhead contact line.
Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 153: The rolling stock shall be designed such that it is possible to operate the electrical installations in accordance with the following regulations:
Any valid regulation from the Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency planning (Direktoratet for Samfunnssikkerhet og Beredskap) must be followed. Information can be found at http://www.dsb.no/
Any valid regulation from the National Electrical Safety Board (Elsäkerhetsverket) for operations of electrical installations must be followed. Information can be found at http://www.elsakerhetsverket.se/ If there is any accessible electrical equipment on the roof of the vehicle, it shall be possible to connect the grounding and short-circuiting tools used by Banverket to earth points on the electrical equipment. Otherwise the vehicle must have own grounding tools. According to Elsäkerhetsverket, grounding via a transformer is not allowed. EN 50 110-1 Operation of electrical installations is applicable to work activity on Swedish railway electrical installations with some exceptions and applications to overhead contact line.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Necessary information about disconnection and grounding of rolling stock either as labels on vehicles or as readily understandable manuals in each vehicle is required in order to handle deviation situations. This requirement does not apply to information which is obvious or can be assumed to be common knowledge for those who do the specific tasks.
Verification shall be made by conformity statements that the rolling stock fulfils standards and regulations.
The conformity statements shall be presented in a report.
4.3 Compatibility requirements
In this chapter all requirements regarding compatibility between vehicles and the power supply are compiled. All requirements, when applicable, are valid for one vehicle and for the maximum configuration of vehicles (i.e. multiple units) for which the approval must be valid. This document describes requirements and infrastructure as is. The infrastructure managers are continuously trying to improve the infrastructure in Norway and Sweden. New or newly imported old rolling stock must not however require changes in the existing infrastructure and rolling stock in order to operate properly.
4.3.1 P1: Line voltage levels
The values in this section refer foremost to stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. For dynamic effects see also section 4.3.8 P8: Low frequency power oscillations and 4.3.9 P9: Electrical resonance stability.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Under normal operating conditions (in accordance with the definition in clause 3.16 in EN 50 163:2004), the traction power supply complies with the requirements for minimum and maximum voltage given in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004, and for Umean useful(zone) and Umean useful(train) for conventional TSI lines and classical lines given in clause 8 of EN 50 388:2005. Exceptions and specifications are given below.
The nominal voltage is 15.0 kV RMS. The voltage at the feeder station busbar is usually adjusted to 16.5 kV RMS independent of load (below max load), or to 16.5 kV RMS with a gently declining characteristic as a function of inductive current in order to improve load-sharing of reactive power between converter stations. Declining characteristic means that the voltage is controlled in such a way that the voltage will drop linearly as a function of the inductive load, and such that the voltage will decrease about 2-5% from 16.5 kV RMS at full and purely inductive load.
There are no requirements for the unspecified period in time in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004 for maximum voltage, if the increased contact line voltage is caused by regenerative braking of rolling stock. This implies that a train may continuously generate up to Umax2 during regenerative braking.
The instantaneous values for the line voltage can be very high. Due to the high harmonic content, a crest factor above 1.8 can occur giving crest values of up to about 32 kV. Please also refer to section 4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion.
The line voltage level may change abruptly, due to cut-in or cut-out of substations or feeding points. The jumps may be from any value to any other value within the line voltage interval 10.0 kV to 18.0 kV RMS.
Existing older rolling stock may not have an efficient current limitation as a function of pantograph voltage and can therefore force the line voltage to be low at sections where the distances between traction power supply feeding points are long. Hence it must be expected minimum train voltages of Umin2 = 10.0 kV RMS and Umin1 = 11.0 kV RMS in accordance with definitions in clause 4.1 in EN 50 163:2004.
Existing Swedish vehicles have not been designed to Umax2 = 18.0 kV RMS, and cannot be expected to withstand voltages higher than 17.5 kV RMS.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Rolling stock must be able to operate under voltage conditions given above.
Rolling stock is not allowed to cause voltages outside the limits in EN 50 163:2004. See also section 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low line voltage and 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.
Rolling stock is not allowed to cause voltages below the limits in EN 50 163:2004. New rolling stock must not cause the line voltage locally at any existing vehicle to increase above 17.5 kV to any greater extent (amplitude and time duration limited to approximately 5 seconds) than what is already seen in the existing system. A compatibility study according to EN 50 388 must be made, showing that this requirement is met. A train may continuously generate up to 17.5 kV RMS during regenerative braking.
See also section 4.3.7 P7: Current or power control at low line voltage and 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Rolling stock ability to withstand the voltage levels must be tested in accordance with EN 50 215:1999, clause 9.15.
Practical short circuit tests on a line as described in EN 50 215:1999, clause 9.15.4 shall not be performed. These tests are to be performed as factory tests instead. See also chapter 4.3.13 P13: Regenerative braking, and its reference to EN 50 388:2005, clause 12, regarding regeneration to a neutral section or a short circuit.
For more details about tests see chapter 4.4. The line voltage must be continuously recorded throughout all test runs, and the correct operation of the train must be documented.
Voltage jump tests must be performed according to chapter 126.96.36.199.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Conformity statement and test report.
4.3.2 P2: Line voltage frequency
The values in this section refer foremost to stationary or quasi-stationary conditions. For dynamic effects see also section
188.8.131.52 P8: Low frequency power oscillations.
Synchronous frequency is within the variation given by EN 50 163:2004, clause 4.2.
The traction power system frequency is synchronous with the national grid in Norway and Sweden, hence is then also dependent on variation in three-phase network frequency. fn = 16 ⅔ Hz
Normally the frequency variation is ± 0.033 Hz and under special conditions the variation is ± 0.166 Hz due to frequency variations in three-phase network.
Rolling stock shall be able to operate under frequency variations in accordance with EN 50 163:2004, clause 4.2.
4.3.3 P3: Line voltage distortion
THD (total harmonic distortion) is defined as:
|U1 = fundamental harmonic voltage|
|Un = various higher-order harmonics
The line voltage THD may exceed 0.3 p.u. or 30%. Table 4 below gives a typical example of the statistical distribution of the voltage distortion parameters.
The values of this table are based on approximately 20 hours of recordings made during tests with a locomotive on the Borlänge-Ludvika/Krylbo-Frövi-Eskilstuna line sections in Central Sweden, October 2005. Recordings and analysis by L. Buhrkall.
The values at the 99.95% percentile may be taken as worst-case, excluding short transients etc. Please notice that the highest levels of the low-order harmonics (3rd, 5th, and 7th) do not necessarily occur simultaneously.
Higher-order harmonic voltages exist, typically generated by vehicles without any interference filter.
The harmonics specified above may have all possible angles. Typically, the phase angle of the 3rd harmonic is the opposite of that of the fundamental, such that the crest value of the line voltage becomes the highest possible. To a lesser extend, this is also the case with the 5th harmonic.
Rolling stock must be able to function satisfactory when the contact line voltage includes harmonic distortion as described above.
Limit values for generated and conducted current harmonics are specified in section 0 P10: Current harmonics.
Conformity statement and tests. Tests are specified in chapter 4.4.
The conformity statement and the results of the tests and documented function shall be presented in a technical report.
4.3.4 P4: Neutral sections
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Neutral sections (A.C. phase separation sections) are arranged at:
Temporarily sectioning of overhead contact line network is necessary in order to do maintenance and is consequently a frequent mode of operation. In case of short circuit in a railway line, or special operation of the utility grid, sectioning of the network is also used.
Infrastructure is not equipped with automatic information about neutral sections. Information about the state of the neutral sections is given to driver by optical signals along the line. Manual on board operation is hence permitted.
The normal length is 90 m, but length down to 40 m and up to 350 m exists. In Norway neutral sections of 402 m length is planned for the future to avoid bridging by train with two current collectors.
System separation sections do not exist.
The normal length is 180 m, but length down to 60 m exists. In railway yards neutral sections with lengths of down to 2 m can occur. The neutral sections are normally not earthed, but at narrow bridges and at construction or big maintenance work this may occur.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
Requirements are in accordance with EN 50 388:2005, clause 5. Feedback of regenerative braking power should also be brought to zero when entering a neutral section.
Verification shall be made by means of a technical description on how the vehicle behaves when entering neutral sections. The description can include calculations and functional diagrams.
Verification shall be made by means of a technical description on how the vehicle behaves and how the driver shall behave when entering neutral sections. The description can include calculations and functional diagrams.
NORWAY AND SWEDEN:
The conformity statement and verification shall be presented in a technical report.
4.3.5 P5: Power factor
The power factor, λ, in this section is defined as: